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ducation   Department   Bulletin 

Published  fortnightly  by  the  University  of  the  State  of  New  York 

Entered  as  second-class  matter  June   24,  1908,  at   the   Post   Office   at   Albany,  N.  Y.,  under 

the  act  of  July  16,  1894 

No.  530 

ALBANY,  N.  Y. 

November  i,  191 2 

New  York  State  Museum 

John  M.  Clarke,  Director 
Museum  Bulletin  163 





Introduction 5 

Handsomr'  Lake 9 

Effects     uf      Handsome     Lake's 

teaching 14 

How    the    white    race    came    to 

America 16 

,  The  Gaiwiio  code 20 

Sections    i    to    130:    The    Great 

Message 27 

Part  2.     Field  notes  on  rites  and 

ceremonies 81 

White  dog  sacrifice 85 

Ganeowo 94 

Cornplanting  and  maple  thanks- 
giving      lOI 

Legend  of  the  coming  of  Death.  .    105 
The  funeral  address 107 


The  death  feast no 

Medicine  societies 113 

Dark  dance  or  pygmy  ceremony. .  1 19 

Society  of  otters 121 

Society  of  mystic  animals 122 

The  eagle  society 124 

The  bear  society 125 

The  Buffalo  society 125 

Chanters  for  the  dead 126 

Woman's  society 126 

Sisters  of  the  Dio''he'ko 126 

False  face  company 127 

Husk  faces 129 

Iroquois  sun  myths 131 

Anecdotes  of  Cornplanter 136 

Key  to  pronunciation 139 

Index 145 









New  York  State  Education  Department 

Science  Division,  September  ii,  ic}ij 

Hon.  Andrciu  S.  Draper  LL.D. 

Commissioner  of  Education 

Sir:  I  transmit  to  you  herewith  and  recommend  for  pubhcation 
as  a  bulletin  of  the  State  Museum,  a  manuscri])t  entitled  The  Code 
of  Ha)idso})ie  Lake,  the  Seneca  Prophet,  i)rei)ared  bv  Arthur  C. 
Parker,  Archeologist. 

Very  respectfully 

John  M.  Clarke 



commissioner's  room 
Approi'cd  for  publication  this  i6tJi  da\  of  September  icjtj 

Commissioner  of  Education 

Education   Department    Bulletin 

Published  fortnightly  by  the  University  of  the  State  of  New  York 

Entered   as   second-class    matter    June    24,    1908.    at    the    Post    Office    at    Albany,    N.    Y., 
under  the  act  of  July   16,   1894 

No.  530  ALBANY,  N.  Y.  November  i.  1912 

NeAV  York  State  Museum 

John  M.  Clarke,  Director 
Museum  Bulletin  163 






The  (iai'wiio'  is  the  record  of  the  teachinc^s  of  Handsome  Lake, 
the  Seneca  propliet,  and  purports  t(j  l)e  an  exact  exposition  of  the 
precepts  that  he  tauglit  (hiring-  a  term  of  sixteen  years,  ending  with 
his  death  in  JS15.  It  is  the  Ixisis  of  the  so-called  "new  rehgion  " 
of  the  Six  Nations  and  is  preached  or  recited  at  all  the  annual  mid- 
winter festivals  on  the  various  Iroquois  reservations  in  New  York 
and  (  )ntario  that  have  adherents.  These  reservations  are  (  )non- 
daga,  Tonawanda,  Cattaraugus  and  Allegany  in  New  ^'ork  and 
(irand  Ri\er  and  Muncytown  in  (  )ntario. 

There  are  six  authorized  "holders"  of  the  (iai'wiio*'  among 
whom  are  John  (iihson  (  Ganio'dai'io"  )  and  l^dward  Cornplanler 
( Soson'dowa),  Senecas,  and  h^rank-  Logan  (Adodar'ho),  (  )non- 
daga.  Chief  Cornplanter  is  1)\-  far  the  most  conservative  though 
Chief  (iihson  seems  to  have  the  greater  store  of  exi)lanatory  mat- 
ter, often  interpolating  it  during  his  ex])osition.  Chief  Lf)gan  is  a 
devout  adherent  of  his  religion  and  watches  the  waning  of  his 
prophet's  teacliings  with  grave  concern.  His  grief  is  like  that  of 
Hiawatha  ( Haiyo"'wentha )  and  inclines  him  to  leave  Onondaga 
for  a  region  where  the  prophet  will  not  he  jeered. 

'Key   to   pronunciation  of    Indian  words   on    page   139.      See   also  Glossary, 
page   140. 


The  stated  times  for  the  proclaiming  of  the  Gai'wiio'  are  at  the 
Six  Nations'  meeting  in  September  and  at  the  midwinter  thanks- 
giving in  the  moon  Nisko'wukni,  between  January  15th  and  Fel)ru- 
ary  15th.  At  such  times  the  ()hgwe"onweka  or  "  faithful  In- 
dians "  send  for  an  expounder  paying  his  traveling  expenses  and 
entertaining  him  during  his  sta}-.  Usually  reservations  ''exchange  '' 
])reachers,  Cornplanter  going  to  Grand  River  or  Onondaga  and 
Chief  Gibson  to  Cattaraugus  or  Allegany. 

The  time  consumed  in  reciting  the  Gai'wiio'  is  always  three  days. 
At  noon  each  day  the  expositor  stops,  for  the  sun  is  in  midheaven 
and  readv  to  descend.  All  sacred  things  must  be  done  sede'tcia, 
early  in  the  iiioniiiif/.  Before  sunrise  each  morning  of  the  preach- 
ing the  preacher  stands  at  the  fireplace  in  the  long  house  and  sings 
a  song  known  as  the  Sun  Song.  This  is  an  obedience  to  a  command 
of  the  prophet  \\ho  ])romised  that  it  should  insure  good  weather  for 
the  day.  "  The  winrl  always  dies  down  when  I  sing  that  song," 
affirms  Chief  CornjjJanter. 

During  the  recital  of  the  (iai'wiio'  the  [jreacher  stands  at  the 
firei>lace  which  serves  as  the  altar.  Sitting  beside  him  is  an  assist- 
ant or  some  officer  of  the  rites  who  holds  a  white  wampum  strand.' 
A  select  congregation  sits  on  benches  placed  across  the  long  house 
but  the  majority  use  the  double  row  of  seats  around  the  walls.  The 
women  wear  shawls  over  their  heads  and  during  affecting  parts  of 
the  story  hide  their  faces  to  conceal  the  tears.  Some  of  the  men, 
stirred  to  emotion,  likewise  are  moxed  to  tears  but  are  unable  to 
hide  them.  Such  emotion  once  detected  by  the  auditors  sometimes 
becomes  contagious  and  serves  as  the  means  of  scores  repledging 
their  allegiance  to  the  old  religion.  In  190c;,  for  example.  136 
Allegany  Senecas  promised  Chief  Corni)lanter  that  they  would  stop 
drinking  liquor  and  obev  the  commands  of  Handsome  Lake.  A'isit- 
ing  Canadian  Oneida  Indians  at  the  Grand  River  ceremonies,  as 
a  result  of  such  a  ""  revival,"  petitioned  for  a  visit  of  the  Gai'wiio' 
preachers  several  years  ago,  saying  that  a  portion  of  the  Oneida 
of  the  Thames  wished  to  return  to  the  "  old  way."  This  some  of 
them  have  done  but  they  complain  of  the  ])ersecution  of  their 
Christian  tribesmen  who  threatened  to  burn  their  council  house.  In 
other  ])laccs  the  case  seems  dift'erent  and  the  "  prophet's  cause  "  is 
not  es])Oused  with  much  enthusiasm  In-  the  younger  element  to 
whom  the  white  man's  world    and  thought  jircsent  a  greater  appeal. 

'The  original  Handsome  Lake  belt    is  still  (lisi)laved  at  the  religious  cf)uncil 
at  Tonawanda.     (See  plate  15.) 


Those  who  hve  in  coninuinitics  in  which  the  prophet's  word  is  still 
strong  are  drawn  to  the  ceremonies  and  to  the  recitals  hecause  it  is 
a  jxirt  of  their  social  system. 

Its  great  appeal  to  the  older  people  is  that  it  i)resents  in  their  ow  n 
language  a  system  of  moral  jirecepts  and  exhortations  that  they  can 
readily  understand.  The  ])rophet,  who  is  called  "  our  t/rcat 
teacher  "  (  sedwa'gow'a'ne' ) ,  was  a  man  of  their  own  hlood,  and  the 
ground  that  he  traversed  was  their  ancestral  domain.  Patriotism 
and  religious  emotion  mingle,  and,  when  the  story  of  the  "  great 
wrongs  '"  is  rememl)ered,  spur  on  a  ready  acceptance.  The  fraudu- 
lent treaty  of  Buffalo  of  1838,  for  example,  caused  many  of  the 
Ruffalo  Senecas  to  move  to  the  Cattaraugus  reservation.  Here  they 
settled  at  (lanun'dase'  or  Newtown,  then  a  desolate  wilderness. 
Their  hitter  wrongs  made  them  hate  wdiite  men  and  to  resist  all 
missionary  efforts.  Today  there  is  no  mission  chapel  at  Newtown. 
All  attempts  have  failed.'  Whether  future  ones  will  readily  succeed 
is  conjectural.  The  Indian  there  clings  to  his  prophet  and  heeds 
the  word  of  his  teacher.  At  Cold  Spring  on  the  Allegany  is  an- 
other center  of  the  "  old  time  people.""  On  the  Tonawanda  reserva- 
tion this  element  is  chiefly  centered  "  down  below  ""  at  the  long 
house.  On  the  C)nondaga  reservation  the  long  house  stands  in  the 
middle  of  the  (  )nondaga  village  and  the  Cianufig'sisne'ha  (  long 
house  people)  are  distributed  all  over  the  reservation  but  perha])s 
chiefly  on  Hemlock  road.  It  is  an  odd  sight,  provoking  strange 
thoughts,  to  stand  at  the  tomb  of  the  i)rophet  near  the  council  house 
and  watch  each  day  the  hundreds  of  automobiles  that  fly  l)y  over 
the  State  road.  The  Tuscarora  and  St  Regis  Indians  are  all  nomin- 
ally Christians  and  they  have  no  long  houses. 

The  ])resent  form  of  the  Gai'wiio'  was  determined  b\'  a  council 
of  its  preachers  some  fifty  years  ago.  They  met  at  Cold  S])ring, 
the  old  home  of  Handsome  Lake,  and  com])are(l  their  \ersions. 
Several  differences  were  found  and  each  jireacher  thought  his  ver- 
sion the  correct  one.  At  length  Chief  John  jacket,  a  Cattaraugus 
Seneca,  and  a  man  well  versed  in  the  lore  of  his  people,  was  chosen 
to  settle  forever  the  words  and  the  form  <>f  the  Gai'wiio".  This 
he  did  by  writing  it  out  in  the  Seneca  language  l\v  the  method  taught 
by  Rev.  Asher  Wright,  the  Presbyterian  missionary.  The  preachers 
assembled  again,  this  time,  according  to  Cornplanter.  at  Cattaraugus 
where  they  memorized  the  parts  in  which  they  were  faulty.  The 
original  text  was  written  on  letter  paper  and  now  is  entirely  de- 

See  Caswell,   Our  Life  Ammi-   llu'  Tru(|U()is.     Bustoii,    i8(]8^ 


stroycd.  Chief  Jacket  gave  it  to  Henry  Stevens  and  Chief  Stevens 
passed  it  on  to  Chief  Cornplanter  who  after  he  had  memorized  the 
teachings  became  careless  and  lost  the  papers  sheet  by  sheet.  Fear- 
ing that  the  true  form  might  become  lost  Chief  Cornplanter  in  1903 
began  to  rewrite  the  Gai'wiio"  in  an  old  minute  book  of  the  Seneca 
Lacrosse  Club.  He  had  finished  the  historical  introduction  when 
the  writer  discovered  what  he  had  done.  He  was  implored  to  finish 
it  and  give  it  to  the  State  of  Xew  "S'ork  for  ])reservation.  He  was 
at  first  reluctant,  fearing  criticism,  but  after  a  council  with  the  lead- 
ing men  he  consented  to  do  so.  He  became  greatly  interested  in 
the  progress  of  the  translation  and  is  eager  for  the  time  to  arrive 
when  all  white  men  may  have  the  pri\ilcge  of  reading  the  "  wonder- 
ful message  "  of  the  great  i')rophet. 

The  translation  was  made  chiefly  by  William  Bluesky.  the  native 
lay  jireacher  of  the  Baptist  church.  It  was  a  lesson  in  religious 
toleration  to  see  the  Christian  preacher  and  the  "  Instructor  of  the 
Gai'wiio'  "  side  by  side  working  o\er  the  sections  of  the  code,  for 
beyond  a  few  smiles  at  certain  passages,  in  which  Chief  Corn- 
l)lanter  himself  shared,  Mr  Bluesky  never  showed  but  that  he 
reverenced  every  message  and  revelation  of  the  four  messengers. 



Handsome  Lake,  the  Seneca  prophet,  was  born  in  1735  in  the 
Seneca  village  of  Conawagas  (Gano"'wages)  on  the  Genesee  river 
opposite  the  present  town  of  Avon,  Livingston  county.  He  is  de- 
scribed by  Buffalo  Tom  Jemison  as  a  middle-sized  man,  slim  and 
unhealthy  looking.  He  was  a  member  of  one  of  the  noble 
(hoya'ne")  families  in  which  the  title  of  Ganio'dai'io'  or 
Ska'niadar'io'  is  vested,  thus  holding  the  most  honored  Seneca  title. 
What  his  warrior  name  was  is  not  known  and  neither  is  it  known 
just  when  he  received  the  name  and  title  by  which  he  later  became 
known.  It  is  known,  however,  that  he  belonged  to  the  Turtle  clan. 
Later  he  was  "  borrowed  "  by  the  Wolves  and  reared  by  them.  His 
half  brother  was  the  celebrated  Cornplanter. 

The  general  story  of  his  life  may  be  gleaned  from  a  perusal  of 
his  code,  there  being  nothing  of  any  consecjuence  known  of  his  life 
up  to  the  time  of  his  "vision."  In  1794  his  name  appears  on  a 
treaty  but  whether  he  took  active  part  in  the  debates  that  led  up  to 
it  is  not  known.  It  is  known  from  tradition  and  from  his  own 
story  that  he  was  a  dissolute  person  and  a  miserable  victim  of  the 
drink  habit.  The  loss  of  the  Genesee  country  caused  him  to  go 
with  his  tribesmen  to  the  Allegany  river  settlements.  Here  he 
became  afflicted  with  a  wasting  disease  that  was  aggravated  by  his 
continued  use  of  the  white  man's  fire  water.  For  four  years  he 
lay  a  helpless  invalid.  His  bare  cabin  scarcely  afforded  him  shelter 
but  later  he  was  nursed  by  his  married  daughter  who  seems  to  have 
treated  him  with  affection.  His  sickness  afforded  him  much  time 
for  serious  meditation  and  it  is  quite  possible  that  some  of  his  pre- 
cepts are  the  result  of  this  opportunity.  His  own  condition  could 
not  fail  to  impress  him  with  the  folly  of  using  alcoholic  drink  and 
the  wild  whoops  of  the  drunken  raftsmen  continually  reminded  him 
of  the  "  demon's  "  power  over  thought  and  action.  In  the  fore- 
word of  his  revelation  he  tells  how  he  became  as  dead,  and  of  the 
visitation  of  the  "  four  beings "  who  revealed  the  will  of  the 

After  this  first  revelation  he  seemed  to  recover  and  immediately 
began  to  tell  the  story  of  his  visions.  His  first  efforts  were  to  con- 
demn the  use  of  the  ''  first  zvord  "  or  the  white  man's  "  one'ga." 
He  became  a  temperance  reformer  but  his  success  came  not  from 
an   appeal   to    reason   but    to    religious    instinct.      The    ravages    of 

10  NliW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

iiitenii)crance  for  a  century  had  made  serious  inroads  on  the  domestic 
and  social  hfe  of  his  people.  It  had  demoralized  their  national  life 
and  caused  his  brother  chiefs  to  barter  land  for  the  means  of  a 
debauch.  It  threatened  the  extinction 'of  his  people.  Such  were 
the  factors  that  induced  the  revelation. 

He  was  a  man  past  the  prime  of  life,  a  man  weakened  by  disease 
and  drunkenness.  Yet  he  assumed  the  role  of  teacher  and  prophet. 
In  two  years"  time  his  efiforts  were  conducive  of  so  much  reform 
that  ihcy  attracted  the  attention  of  President  Jefferson  who  caused 
Secretar\-  of  War  Dearborn  to  write  a  letter  commending  the  teach- 
ings of  Handsome  Lake.  The  Seneca  construed  this  as  a  recogni- 
tion of  the  prophet's  right  to  teach  and  prophesy.  The  nature  of 
the  document  is  revealed  in  the  following  letter,  a  copy  of  which  is 
in  the  possession  of  every  religious  chief  of  the  Six  Nations : 

Brothers  —  The  President  is  pleased  with  seeing  you  all  in 
good  health,  after  so  long  a  journey,  and  he  rejoices  in  his  heart 
that  one  of  your  own  peoi)le  has  been  employed  to  make  you 
sober,  good  and  happy  :  and  that  he  is  so  well  disposed  to  give 
you  good  advice,  and  to  set  before  you  so  good  examples. 

Brothers — If  all  the  red  people  follow  the  advice  of  your 
friend  and  teacher,  the  Handsome  Lake,  and  in  future  will  be 
sober,  honest,  industrious  and  good,  there  can  be  no  doubt  but  the 
dreat  Spirit  will  take  care  of  \ou  and  make  you  happy. 

This  letter  came  as  one  of  the  results  of  Handsome  Lake's  visit 
in  1802,  to  Washington  with  a  delegation  of  Seneca  and  Onondaga 
chiefs.  The  successful  results  of' his  two  years'  ministry  became 
more  fruitful  as  time  went  on.  In  1809  a  number  of  members  of 
the  Society  of  Friends  visiting  Onondaga  left  the  following  record 
of  the  effects  of  the  ])rophet's  teachings:  "  \\'e  were  informed,  not 
only  by  themselves,  but  by  the  interpreter,  that  they  totally  refrained 
from  the  use  of  ardent  spirits  for  about  nine  years,  and  that  none 
of  the  natives  will  touch  it." 

The  success  of  Handsome  Lake's  teachings  did  much  to  crystal- 
lize the  Iroquois  as  a  distinct  social  group.  The  encroachments  of 
civilization  had  demoralized  the  old  order  of  things.  The  old  be- 
liefs, though  still  held,  had  no  coherence.  The  ancient  system  had 
no  longer  definite  organization  and  thus  no  specific  hold. 

The  frauds  which  the  Six  Nations  had  suffered,  the  loss  of  land 
and  of  ancient  seats  had  reduced  them  to  poverty  and  disheartened 
them.  The  crushing  blow  of  Sullivan's  campaign  was  yet  felt  and 
the  wounds  then  inflicted  were  fresh.  The  national  order  of  the 
Confederacy  was  destroyed.  Poverty,  the  sting  of  defeat,  the  loss 
of  ancestral  homes,  the  memory  of  broken  promises  and  the  hostility 


of  the  white  settlers  all  conspired  to  bring  despair.  There  is 
not  much  energy  in  a  desjjairing  nation  who  see  themselves  hopeless 
and  alone,  the  greedy  eyes  of  their  conquerors  fastened  on  the  few 
acres  that  remain  to  them.  It  was  little  wonder  that  the  Indian 
sought  forgetfulnes.s  in  the' trader's  rum. 

As  a  victim  of  such  conditions,  Handsome  Lake  stalked  ivom  the 
gloom  holding  up  as  a  beacon  of  hope  his  divine  message,  the 
Gai'wiio'.  He  became  in  spite  of  his  detractors  a  commanding 
figure.  He  created  a  new  system,  a  thing  to  think  about,  a  thing  to 
discuss,  a  thing  to  believe.  His  message,  whether  false  or  true,  was 
a  creation  of  their  own  and  afforded  a  nucleus  about  which  they 
could  cluster  themselves  and  fasten  their  hopes.  A  few  great 
leaders  such  as  Red  Jacket  denounced  him  as  an  imposter  Init  this 
only  afforded  the  necessary  resistant  element.  The  angels  then 
conveniently  revealed  that  Red  jacket  was  a  schemer  and  a  seller 
of  land  and  an  unhappy  wretch  doomed  to  carry  burdens  of  soil 
through  eternity  as  a  punishment  for  perfidy.  This  was  enough 
to  create  a  prejudice  among  the  Indians  and  one  that  lasts  to  this 
day  among  all  classes  of  the  reservation  Iroc|uois.  A  few  others 
endeavored  to  expose  the  prophet  but  this  action  only  created  a 
large  faction  that  stood  strongly  for  him. 

Whatever  may  be  the  merits  of  the  prophet's  teachings,  they 
created  a  revolution  in  Irotjuois  religious  life.  With  the  spread  of 
his  doctrines  the  older  religious  system  was  overturned  until  today 
it  is  to  be  doubted  that  a  single  adherent  remains.  Handsome 
Lake's  followers  were  few  at  first.  He  was  despised,  ridiculed  and 
subject  to  bodily  insults.  Certain  failures  to  live  up  to  a  precon- 
ceived idea  of  what  a  prophet  should  be  caused  a  continual  perse- 
cution. Cornplanter,  his  half  brother,  continually  harassed  him,  as 
may  be  seen  in  the  relation.  Some  of  his  failures,  real  or  fancietl, 
caused  calumny  to  be  heaped  upon  him  and  they  are  current  today 
among  those  inclined  to  scoff.  It  is  said  that  he  learned  his  ideas 
of  morality  from  his  nephew,  Henry  ( )l)ail  ( Abeal ) ,  who  had  been 
at  school  in  Philadelphia.  Henrv,  it  is  said,  took  him  up  in  the 
mountains  and  explained  the  Christain  15il)le  to  him,  thus  gi\ing 
him  the  idea  of  devising  the  ( iai'wiio".  (  )ther  tales  are  tliat  he  failed 
to  find  the  great  serpent  in  the  bed  of  the  Allegany  river  though  he 
pretended  to  locate  it  and  charge  it  with  having  sj)read  disease 
among  the  people,  and  that  he  erected  an  idol  on  an  island  in  the 
river,  a  thing  which  from  more  authentic  accounts  he  did  not  do. 

Previous  to  his  residence  at  Tonawanda  he  had  lixed  ten  ^•ears 


at  Cornplaiiter's  town  and  two  years  at  Cold  Spring.  At  the  latter 
place  he  made  so  many  enemies  that  he  resolved  to  leave  with  his 
followers.  This  was  in  about  1812.  With  him  went  his  chief  fol- 
lowers and  his  family,  among  them  his  grandson  Sos'heowa  who 
later  became  his  successor. 

Sos'heowa  was  born  in  1774  in  the  old  town  of  Ganowa'ges,  the 
home  of  both  Cornplanter  and  Handsome  Lake.  Lewis  H.  Morgan, 
who  knew  him  well,  describes  him  as  "  an  eminently  pure  and 
virtuous  man  .  .  .  devoted  ...  to  the  duties  of  his  office, 
as  the  spiritual  guide  and  teacher  of  the  lroc|Uois." 

Morgan  gives  a  full  account  of  the  recitation  of  Sosehawa  at 
the  mourning  council  at  Tonawanda  in  1848^  and  credits  the 
translation  to  Sosehawa's  grandson,  Ely  S.  Parker  (Ha-sa- 

During  the  prophet's  four  years'  stay  at  Tonawanda  he  became 
many  times  discouraged,  "  reluctant  to  tell,"  and  though  the  people 
gradually  became  more  friendly,  he  seemed  loath  at  times  to  pro- 
claim his  revelations.  Some  Christian  Indians  have  explained  this 
as  caused  by  an  uneasy  conscience  that  came  with  greater  knowl- 
edge of  the  white  man's  religion  but  there  is  no  evidence  of  this. 
During  this  stay  he  was  invited  to  visit  the  Onondaga  and  this  he 
did,  though  according  to  his  visions  it  necessitated  the  singing  of 
his  ■■  lliird  song,"  which  meant  that  he  should  die.  In  a  vision 
which  he  related  he  saw  the  four  messengers  who  said  "  They  have 
stretched  out  their  hands  pleading  for  you  to  come  and  they  are 
your  own  people  at  Onondaga"  (section  122). 

When  the  word  was  given,  Handsome  Lake  with  a  few^  chosen 
followers  started  to  walk  to  Onondaga.  His  prediction  of  his  own 
death,  however,  caused  many  more  to  join  the  party  when  it  became 
definitely  known  he  had  started.  The  first  camping  spot  mentioned 
is  at  the  old  village,  (iano'"wa'ges.  Here  upon  retiring  he  com- 
manded the  comjjany  to  assemble  "  early  in  the  morning."  At  the 
morning  gatliering  he  announced  a  vision.  It  had  been  of  a  path- 
way covered  with  grass.  At  the  next  camp,  at  Ganundasa^ga,  his 
vision  was  of  a  w^oman  speaking.  On  the  borders  of  Onondaga  he 
discovered  that  he  had  lost  a  favorite  knife  and  went  back  to  find 
it.  He  was  evidently  much  depressed  and  approached  Onondaga 
with  a  reluctance  that  almost  betokened  fear.     Upon  his  arrival  he 

1  Morgan,  League,  p.  233,  Rochester,  1851. 

2  Later  known  as  Dioni'hoga'we,  Door  Keeper,  a  sachem  of  the  Seneca. 
Parker  was  Morgan's  collaborator  in  writing  the  League  of  the  Iroquois. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  13 

was  unal)le  to  address  the  people  because  of  his  distress,  so  that  it 
was  said,  "  Our  meeting  is  only  a  gathering  about  the  fireplace." 
A  game  of  lacrosse  was  played  to  cheer  him  but  he  could  only  re- 
spond to  the  honor  by  saying:  "  I  will  soon  go  to  my  new  home. 
Soon  will  I  step  into  the  new  world  for  there  is  a  plain  pathway 
before  me  leading  there."  He  repaired  to  his  cainn  at  the  foot  of 
the  hill,  in  sight  of  the  council  house  and  there  after  a  most  dis- 
tressing illness  "  commenced  his  walk  "  over  the  path  that  had 
appeared  before  him.  He  was  buried  under  the  council  house  with 
impressive  ceremonies  and  his  tomb  may  still  be  seen  though  the 
house  has  been  removed.  A  granite  monuiuent,  erected  by  the  Six 
Nations,  marks  his  resting  place. 

Handsome  Lake  lived  to  see  his  people  divided  into  two  factions, 
one  that  clung  to  the  old  order  and  one  that  followed  him.  After 
his  death  the  older  order  gradually  faded  out  of  existence,  either 
coming  over  to  the  New  Religion  or  e'ubracing  Christianity.  Thus 
by  the  time  of  the  Civil  War  in  1861  there  were  only  the  two  ele- 
ments, the  Christians  and  the  followers  of  Handsome  Lake.  They 
stand  so  arrayed  today  but  with  the  "  new  religionists  "  gradually 
diminishing  in  number.  The  force  of  Handsome  Lake's  teaching, 
however,  is  still  felt  and  affects  in  some  way  all  the  New  York 
reservations,  except  perhaps  St  Regis. 

Handsome  Lake  as  the  founder  of  a  religious  system  occupied 
such  a  position  that  his  followers  place  implicit  confidence  in  that 
system  whatever  his  personal  weaknesses  and  failures  may  have 

He  made  mistakes,"  said  Chief  Cornplanter,  "  manv  mistakes, 
so  it  is  reported,  but  he  was  only  a  man  and  men  are  liable  to  com- 
mit errors.  Whatever  he  did  and  said  of  himself  is  of  no  conse- 
quence. What  he  did  and  said  by  the  direction  of  the  four 
messengers  is  everything  —  it  is  our  religion.  Ganiodaiio  was  weak 
in  many  points  and  sometimes  afraid  to  do  as  the  messengers  told 
him.  He  was  almost  an  unwilling  servant.  He  made  no  divine 
claims,  he  did  not  j)ose  as  infallil)le  nor  even  truly  virtuous.  He 
merely  proclaimed  the  Ciai'wiio'  and  that  is  what  we  follow,  not 
him.  W^e  do  not  worship  hiiu,  we  worship  one  great  Creator.  We 
honor  and  revere  our  prophet  and  leader,  we  re\ere  the  four 
messengers  who  watch  over  us  —  but  the  Creator  alone  do  we 
worship."     Such  is  the  argument  of  his  followers. 

14  NEW    YORK    STATF.    MUSEUM 

PRESExXT  EFF1-:CTS  ol'  llAXDSUMl-:  LAKl'/S  T1-:ACHL\G 

There  is  no  record  of  ilandsome  Lake's  visiting  Tuscarora, 
( )nei(la  or  St  Regis.  I'lic  result  is  that  these  reservations  contani 
only  Indians  who  are  nominally  Christian.  The  Oneida  are  virtually 
citizens,  the  Tuscarora  as  capable  of  being  so  as  any  community  of 
whites,  and  the  St  Regis  progressive  enough  not  only  to  use  all 
their  own  lands  hut  to  rent  fron:  the  whites.  Their  "  Indianess  " 
is  largelv  gone.  They  have  no  Indian  customs  though  they  are 
affected  by  Indian  folk-thought  and  exist  as  Indian  communities. 
governing  theirselves  and  receiving  annuities.  Their  material 
culture  is  now  largely  that  of  the  whites  about  theiu  and  they  are 
Indians  onlv  because  tliey  dwell  in  an  Indian  rcserxalion.  ])()ssess 
Indian  blood  and  sj)eak  an  Irocjuois  dialect. 

in  contrast  to  these  reservations  where  the  Indian  has  become 
"  whitemanized  "  stand  out  the  reservations  of  the  Seneca  and 
Onondaga.  (  )n  the  latter  the  folk-ways  and  the  "  Indian  way  of 
thinking  "  struggle  with  the  white  man's  civilization  for  supremacy. 
The  Indian  of  the  old  way  is  arrayed  against  the  Indian  of  the 
new  way.  The  conservative  Indian  calls  his  Christian  brother  a 
traitor  to  his  race,  a  man  ashamed  of  his  ancestors,  a  man  who 
condones  all  the  wrongs  the  wdiite  man  has  done  his  people,  and  a 
man  who  is  at  best  an  imitator  and  a  poor  one.  On  the  other 
hand  the  Christain  Indian  calls  his  "  feather  wearing  "  (Adistowae') 
brother.  "  a  blind  man  in  the  wilderness,"  a  nonprogressive,  behind 
the  times,  a  man  ho]K'lessl}-  struggling  against  fate,  a  heathen  and 
a  ])agan.  lAen  so.  the  followers  of  Handsome  Lake  constitute  an 
influential  element  and  the  other  Indians  are  affected  bv  their  be- 
liefs wIk'Ukt  llic\-  are  willing  or  not.  As  was  remarkccl  in  the 
beginning.  Ilandsome  Lake  crystallized  as  a  social  unit  the  peoj)le 
whom  he  taught  and  those  who  follow  him  today  constitute  a  unit 
that  holds  itself  at  variance  with  the  social  and  acce])led  econoiuic 
systetus  of  the  white  communities  about  them.  Thev  assert  that 
they  have  a  perfect  right  to  use  their  own  system.  Thev  argue  that 
the  white  man's  teachings  are  not  consistent  with  his  ])ractice  and 
thus  only  one  of  their  schemes  for  deceiving  them.  riie\-  assert 
that  they  wish  to  remriin  Indians  and  have  a  right  to  be  so  and  to 
believe  their  own  i)roj)het.  They  are  largely  instrumental  in  con- 
serving the  systems  i)eculiarly  Indian  and  though  they  are  a 
minority  they  control  a  majority  of  the  offices  in  the  nations  to 
which  they  belong.     .Among  the  Onondaga  and  Tonawanda  Seneca 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  1 5 

they  hold  most  of  the  offices.  In  connection  with  the  Allegany 
and  Cattaraugus  Seneca  I  use  the  word  control,  advisedly,  since 
there  may  l)e  times  when  the  majority  of  councilors  may  l)e  of  the 
Christian  party.  Even  so,  the  "  conservative  "'  party  controls 
enough  to  maintain  the  system  that  they  deem  right. 

When  their  poverty  is  urged  as  an  argument  against  their 
religion  and  social  syste  n  they  assert  that  the  true  follower  of  the 
prophet  will  be  poor  and  suffer  much  in  this  world  Init  that  his 
condition  in  the  "  new  world  above  the  sky  "  will  be  in  direct  con- 
trast. They  therefore  esteem  poverty,  lowly  surroundings  and 
sickness  as  a  sure  indication  of  a  rich  heavenly  reward  and  point 
to  the  better  material  surroundings  and  wealth  of  their  brethren  of 
the  white  man's  way  as  an  evidence  that  the  devil  has  bought  them. 

The  writer  of  this  sketch  has  no  complaint  against  the  simple 
folk  who  have  long  been  his  friends.  For  a  greater  portion  of  his 
lifetime  he  has  mingled  with  them,  lived  in  their  homes  and  re- 
ceived many  honors  from  them.  He  has  attended  their  ceremonies, 
heard  their  instructors  and  learned  much  of  the  old-time  lore. 
Never  has  he  been  more  royally  entertained  than  by  them,  never 
was  hospitality  so  genuine,  never  was  gratitude  more  earnest,  never 
were  friends  more  sincere.  There  is  virtue  in  their  hearts  and  a 
sincerity  and  frankness  that  is  refreshing.  If  only  there  were  no 
engulfing  "  new  way  '"  and  no  modern  rush,  no  need  for  progress, 
there  could  scarcely  be  a  Itetter  devised  system  than  theirs.  It 
was  almost  perfectly  fitted  for  the  conditions  which  it  was  designed 
to  meet,  but  now  the  new  way  has  surrounded  them,  everything 
which  they  have  and  use  in  the  line  of  material  things,  save  a  few 
simple  maize  foods  and  their  ceremonial  paraphernalia,  is  the 
product  of  the  white  man's  hand  and  brain.  The  social  and 
economic  and  moral  order  all  about  them  is  the  white  man's,  not 
theirs.  How  long  can  they  oppose  their  way  to  the  overwhelming 
forces  of  the  modern  world  and  exist?  How  long  will  they  seek  to 
meet  these  overwhelming  forces  with  those  their  ancestors  devised 
but  devised  not  with  a  knowledge  of  what  the  future  would  re- 
quire? My  Indian  friends  will  answer,  "  Of  these  things  we  know 
nothing :  we  know  only  that  the  Great  Ruler  will  care  for  us  as  long 
as  we  are  faithful."  Asked  about  the  clothes  they  wear,  the  houses 
they  live  in,  the  long  house  they  worship  in,  thev  replv,  "All  these 
things  may  be  made  of  the  white  man's  material  but  they  are  out- 
side things.  Our  religion  is  not  one  of  paint  or  feathers  :  it  is  a 
thing  of  the  heart."  That  is  the  answer;  it  is  a  thing  of  the  heart 
—  who  can  change  it  ? 





Now  this  happened  a  long  time  ago  and  across  the  great  salt  sea, 
odji''ke'dagi'ga,  that  stretches  east.  There  is.  so  it  seems,  a  world 
there  and  soil  like  ours.  There  in  the  great  queen's  country  where 
swarmed  many  people  —  so  many  that  they  crowded  upon  one 
another  and  had  no  place  for  hunting  —  there  lived  a  great  queen. 
Among  her  servants  was  a  young  preacher  of  the  queen's  religion, 
so  it  is  said. 

Now  this  happened.  The  great  queen  requested  the  preacher  to 
clean  some  old  volumes  which  she  had  concealed  in  a  hidden  chest. 
So  he  obeyed  and  when  he  had  cleaned  the  last  book,  which  was  at 
the  bottom  of  the  chest,  he  opened  it  and  looked  about  and  listened, 
for  truly  he  had  no  right  to  read  the  book  and  wanted  no  one  to 
detect  him.  He  read.  It  was  a  great  book  and  told  him  many 
things  which  he  never  knew  before.  Therefore  he  was  greatly 
worried.  He  read  of  a  great  n^an  who  had  been  a  prophet  and  the 
son  of  the  Great  Ruler.  He  had  been  born  on  the  earth  and  the 
white  men  to  whom  he  preached  killed  him.  Now  moreover  the 
prophet  had  promised  to  return  and  become  the  King.  In  three 
days  he  was  to  come  and  then  in  forty  to  start  his  kingdom.  This 
did  not  happen  as  his  followers  had  expected  and  so  they  despaired. 
Then  said  one  chief  follower.  "  Surely  he  will  come  again  some- 
time, we  must  watch  for  him." 

Then  the  young  preacher  became  worried  for  he  had  discovered 
that  his  god  was  not  on  earth  to  see.  He  was  angry  moreover 
because  his  teachers  had  deceived  liim.  So  then  he  went  to  the 
chief  of  preachers  and  asked  him  how  it  was  that  he  had  deceived 
him.  Then  the  chief  preacher  said,  "  Seek  him  out  and  vou  will  find 
him  for  indeed  we  think  he  does  live  on  earth."  Even  so.  his  heart 
was  angry  but  he  resolved  to  seek. 

On  the  morning  of  the  next  day  he  looked  out  from  the  opening 
of  his  room  and  saw  out  in  the  river  a  beautiful  island  and  he 
marveled  that  he  had  never  seen  it  before.  He  continued  to  gaze 
and  as  he  did  he  saw  among  the  trees  a  castle  of  gold  and  he  marveled 
that  he  had  not  seen  the  castle  of  gold  before.  Then  he  said, 
"  So  beautiful  a  castle  on  so  beautiful  an  isle  must  indeed  be  the 

Plate    2 

So-son-do-\va    or    Edward    edrnplanler,    the    Seneca    teacher    of    Handsome 

Lake's   Code 

Plate  3 

4,  ^• 

.P  f.  ■ 

K  ^         "'  I 

■-,■■,  .yiii,^j<^,.iL^i^>^^midm^,i:m^ 

The    Xewtuwn    Liiiy    ilouse,    t'attaraugus    reservaticm.      ('liiL'f    Cornplanter 

lives  near  l)v. 

I'lioto  by  Gc-urge   W.   Kelloij 

The   Tdiiawanda    Seneca   Long   House,   near   Akron,    N.    Y. 

Plate   4 

A  typical   family  of  tlie  Si 

)ranch  of  the  "  vaiiisiiin.u   race  " 

I'liotus    l,y     M.     K.     ll.irMiiKl. 

A   typical   family   at   Newtown,   Cattaraugus   reservation.      These   people   are 
all    followers   of    Handsome   Lake. 

Plate  5 

Ononda,!j,a    Long    House,    Onoiulaga    reservation.      The    Pruphet's    toml)    is 
just  below  the  spot  marked   + 

The  Long  ll<nise  at   I'ine  W'jods,  Cattaraugus 

Plate   6 

Graves  near  the  Onondaga  L(ing  House  near  Six  Nations,  P.  O.  Ontario. 
In  the  lower  right  corner  the  charred  embers  of  the  grave  tire  may  he 

One  end  of  the  upper  Cayuga  Long  House  near  Ohsweken.  Ont.     Note  the 
Feast   Lodge   in   the   rear. 





Plate   8 

Long  House  of  the  Canadian  Onondai;a,  (irand  River  reservation.  It  is 
here  that  the  feasts  and  thanksgivings  for  the  products  of  the  fields  are 
held   In'  the  Canadian   Dnondaga. 

r  i- 

•|         ■■#• 


f  •v--.Inni^^^^^^''''*  !'^"^'.^^  ■  •■:»  -  'I 

""'1   J  >*.-,«.»i4p  *^ 

Environs   of   the   Cavuga   Long   House,   Grand    River,    Ontario,   Canada 

Plate   9 

Tomi)   of   Handsome   Lake,   near   Onondaga   cnuncil   house 


abode  of  him  whom  I  seek."  Immediately  he  put  on  his  clothes 
and  went  to  the  men  who  had  taught  him  and  they  wondered  and 
said,  "  Indeed  it  must  be  as  you  say."  So  then  together  they  went 
to  the  river  and  when  they  came  to  the  shore  they  saw  that  it  was 
spanned  by  a  bridge  of  shining  gold.  Then  one  of  the  great 
preachers  fell  down  and  read  from  his  book  a  long  prayer  and  aris- 
ing he  turned  his  back  upon  the  island  and  fled  for  he  was  afraid 
to  meet  the  lord.  Then  with  the  young  man  the  other  crossed  the 
bridge  and  he  knelt  on  the  grass  and  he  cried  loud  and  groaned  his 
prayer  but  when  he  arose  to  his  feet  he  too  fled  and  would  not 
look  again  at  the  house  —  the  castle  of  gold. 

Then  was  the  young  man  disgusted  and  boldl}-  he  strode  toward 
the  house  to  attend  to  the  business  which  he  had  in  mind.  He  did 
no't  cry  or  pray  and  neither  did  he  fall  to  his  knees  for  he  was  not 
afraid.  He  knocked  at  the  door  and  a  handsome  smiling  man 
welcomed  him  in  and  said,  "  Do  not  be  afraid  of  me."  Then  the 
smiling  man  in  the  castle  of  gold  said,  "  I  have  wanted  a  young  man 
such  as  you  for  some  time.  You  arc  wise  and  afraid  of  nobody. 
Those  older  men  were  fools  and  would  not  have  listened  to  me 
(direct)  though  they  might  listen  to  some  one  whom  I  had  in- 
structed. Listen  to  me  and  most  truly  you  shall  be  rich.  Across 
the  ocean  that  lies  toward  the  sunset  is  another  world  and  a  great 
country  and  a  people  whom  you  have  never  seen.  Those  people 
are  virtuous,  they  have  no  unnatural  evil  habits  and  they  are 
honest.  A  great  reward  is  yours  if  you  will  help  me.  Here  are  five 
things  that  men  and  women  enjoy  ;  take  them  to  these  people  and 
make  them  as  white  men  are.  Then  shall  you  be  rich  and  powerful 
and  you  may  become  the  chief  of  all  great  preachers  here." 

So  then  the  voung  man  took  the  bundle  containing  the  five 
things  and  made  the  bargain.  He  left  the  island  and  looking  back 
saw  that  the  bridge  had  disappeared  and  before  he  had  turned  his 
head  the  castle  had  gone  and  then  as  he  looked  the  island  itself 

Now  then  the  young  man  wondered  if  indeed  he  had  seen  his  lord 
for  his  mind  had  been  so  full  of  business  that  he  had  forgotten  to 
ask.  So  he  opened  his  bundle  of  five  things  and  found  a  flask  of 
rum,  a  pack  of  playing  cards,  a  handful  of  coins,  a  violin  and  a 
decayed  leg  bone.  Then  he  thought  the  things  very  strange  and 
he  wondered  if  indeed  his  lord  would  send  such  gifts  to  the  people 
across  the  water  of  the  salt  lake ;  but  he  remembered  his  promise. 


The  young  man  looked  about  for  a  suitable  man  in  whom  to  con- 
fide his  secret  and  after  some  searching  he  found  a  man  named 
Columbus  and  to  him  he  confided  the  story.  Then  did  Columbus 
secure  some  big  canoes  and  raise  up  wings  and  he  sailed  away.  He 
sailed  many  days  and  his  warriors  became  angry  and  cried  that  the 
chief  who  led  them  was  a  deceiver.  They  planned  to  behead  him 
but  he  heard  of  the  plan  and  promised  that  on  the  next  day  he 
would  discover  the  new  country.  The  next  morning  came  and  then 
did  Columbus  discover  America.  Then  the  boats  turned  back  and 
reported  their  find  to  the  whole  world.  Then  did  great  ships  come, 
a  good  many.  Then  did  they  bring  many  bundles  of  the  five  things 
and  spread  the  gifts  to  all  the  men  of  the  great  earth  island. 

Then  did  the  invisible  man  of  the  river  island  laugh  and  then 
did  he  say,  "  These  cards  will  make  them  gamble  away  their  wealth 
and  idle  their  time :  this  money  will  make  them  dishonest  and 
covetous  and  they  will  forget  their  old  laws :  this  fiddle  will  make 
them  dance  with  their  arms  about  their  wives  and  bring  about  a 
time  of  tattling  and  idle  gossip ;  this  rum  will  turn  their  minds  to 
foolishness  and  they  will  barter  their  country  for  baubles ;  then 
will  this  secret  poison  cat  the  life  from  their  blood  and  crumble 
their  bones."  So  said  the  invisible  man  and  he  was  HanTsse'ono, 
the  evil  one. 

Now  all  this  was  done  and  when  afterward  he  saw  the  havoc  and 
the  misery  his  work  had  done  he  said,  "  T  think  I  have  made  an 
enormous  mistake  for  I  did  not  dream  that  these  people  would 
sufifer  so."  Then  did  even  the  devil  himself  lament  that  his  evil 
had  been  so  great. 

So  after  the  swarms  of  white  men  came  and  misery  was  thrust 
upon  the  Ongwe-oweh  the  Creator  was  sorry  for  his  own  people 
whom  he  had  molded  from  the  soil  of  the  earth  of  this  Great 
Island,  and  he  spoke  to  his  four  messengers  and  many  times  they 
tried  to  tell  right  men  the  revelations  of  the  Creator  but  none  would 
listen.  Then  they  found  our  head  man  sick.  Then  thev  heard  him 
speak  to  the  sun  and  to  the  moon  and  they  saw  his  sickness.  Then 
they  knew  that  he  suffered  because  of  the  cunning  evils  that 
HanTsse'ono  had  given  the  Ongwe-oweh.  So  then  they  knew  that 
he  was  the  one.  He  was  the  one  who  should  hear  and  tell  Gai'wiio'. 
But  when  danio'dai'io'  si)oke  the  evil  being  ceased  his  lament  and 
sought  to  obstruct  Gai'wiio',  for  he  claimed  to  be  master. 


The  (iai'wiicj"  came  from  HodiiinokMoo"  lled'iobc'.  the  Great 
Ruler,  to  the  1  huHo^ffgeono",  tlie  four  messeu<^ers.  l-'rcim  ihem  it 
was  transmitted  to  (ianio'dai'io',  Handsome  Lake  who  tau,^du  it  to 
Skantlyo"''gwad!  ( (  )\ven  Rlacksnake)  and  to  his  own  t^^randson, 
Sos'heowa  (James  Johnson).  I'.lacksnake  tau<ijht  it  to  lienrv 
Stevens  ( Ganishando ).  who  taui^ht  it  to  Soson'(h)wa,  I',dward 
Cornplanter.  "  So  I  know  that  I  have  the  true  words  and  1  preach 
them,"  adds  Cornplanter. 



The  beginning  was  in  Yai''kni  [May],  early  in  the  moon,  in  the 
year  1800. 

It  commences  now. 


The  place  is^  Ohi'io'  [on  the  Allegany  river],  in  Diono'sade'gi 
[Cornplanter  village]. 

Now  it  is  the  harvest  time,  so  he-  said. 

Now  a  party  of  people  move.  They  go  down  in  canoes  the 
Allegany  river.  They  plan  to  hunt  throughout  the  autumn  and  the 
winter  seasons. 

Now  they  land  at  Ganowon'go"  [Warren,  Pa.]  and  set  up  camp. 

The  weather  changes  and  they  move  again.  They  go  farther 
down  the  river.  The  ice  melts  opening  up  the  stream  and  so  they 
go  still  farther  down.  They  land  at  Diondega  [Pittsburgh].  It  is 
a  little  village  of  white  people  [literally,  "  our  younger  brethren  "^]. 
Here  they  barter  their  skins,  dried  meat  and  fresh  game  for  strong 
drink.  They  put  a  barrel  of  it  in  their  canoes.  Now  all  the  canoes 
are  lashed  together  like  a  raft. 

Now  all  the  men  become  filled  with  strong  drink  (goniga'nongi). 
They  yell  and  sing  like  demented  people.  Those  who  are  in  the 
middle  canoes  do  this.** 

Now  they  are  homeward  bound. 

Now  when  they  come  to  where  they  had  left  their  wives  and 
children  these  embark  to  return  home.  They  go  up  Cornplanter 
creek,  Awe'gao". 

Now  that  the  party  is  home  the  men  revel  in  strong  drink  and 
are  very  quarrelsome.  Because  of  this  the  families  become 
frightened  and  move  away  for  safety.  So  from  many  places  in  the 
bushlands  camp  fires  send  up  their  smoke. 

Now  the  drunken  men  run  yelling  through  the  village  and  there 
is  no  one  there  except  the  drunken  men.     Now  they  are  beastlike 

^  The  present  tense  is  always  used  by  Chief  Cornplanter. 

2  The  narrator,  Handsome  Lake. 

^  The  Seneca  term  is  Honio"o"',  meaning  "  our  younger  brother." 

^  The  into.xicated  men  were  put  in  the  middle  canoes  to  prevent  tlicir 
jumping  into  the  water.  The  more  sober  men  paddled  from  tlie  outer 
canoes.  This  debauchery  was  common  among  the  Six  Nations  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  19th  century. 


THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  21 

and  run  about  without  clothing  and  all  have  weapons  to  injure 
those  whom  they  meet. 

Now  there  are  no  doors  left  in  the  houses  for  they  have  all  been 
kicked  ofif.  So,  also,  there  are  no  fires  in  the  village  and  have  not 
been  for  many  days.  Now  the  men  full  of  strong  drink  have 
trodden  in  the  fireplaces.  They  alone  track  there  and  there  are  no 
fires  and  their  footprints  are  in  all  the  fireplaces. 

Now  the  dogs  yelp  and  cry  in  all  the  houses  for  they  are  hungry. 

So  this  is  what  happens.^ 


And  now  furthermore  a  man  becomes  sick.  Some  strong  power 
holds  him. 

Now  as  he  lies  in  sickness  he  meditates  and  longs  that  he  might 
rise  again  and  walk  upon  the  earth.  So  he  implores  the  Great 
Ruler  to  give  hi  n  strength  that  he  may  walk  upon  this  earth  again. 
And  then  he  thinks  how  evil  and  loathsome  he  is  before  the  Great 
Ruler.  He  thinks  how  he  has  been  evil  ever  since  he  had  strength 
in  this  world  and  done  evil  ever  since  he  had  been  able  to  work. 
But  notwithstanding,  he  asks  that  he  may  again  walk. 

So  now  this  is  what  he  sang:  O'gi'we,-  Ye'onda'tha,^  and 
Gone'owo".^    Now  while  he  sings  he  has  strong  drink  with  him. 

Now  it  comes  to  his  mind  that  perchance  evil  has  arisen  because 
of  strong  drink  and  he  resolves  to  use  it  nevermore.  Now  he  con- 
tinually thinks  of  this  every  day  and  every  hour.  Yea.  he  con- 
tinually thinks  of  this.  Then  a  time  comes  and  he  craves  drink 
again  for  he  thinks  that  he  can  not  recover  his  strength  without  it. 

Now  two  ways  he  thinks  :  what  once  he  did  and  whether  he  will 
ever  recover. 


Now  he  thinks  of  the  things  he  sees  in  the  daylight. 

The  sunlight  comes  in  and  he  sees  it  and  he  says,  "  The  Creator 
made  this  sunshine."  So  he  thinks.  Now  when  he  thinks  of  the 
sunshine  and  of  the  Creator  who  made  it  he  feels  a  new  hope  within 
him  and  he  feels  that  he  may  again  be  on  his  feet  in  this  world. 

Now  he  had  previously  given  up  hope  of  life  but  now  he  begs  to 
see  the  light  of  another  day.     He  thinks  thus  for  night  is  coming. 

^  See  plate  lo. 

-  The  Death  chant. 

^  The  Women's  song. 

*  The  Harvest  song,  see  p.  95. 


So  now  he  makes  an  invocation  lliat  he  may  be  able  to  endure  the 

Now  he  hves  through  the  night  and  sees  another  day.  So  then  he 
pravs  that  he  may  see  the  night  and  it  is  so.  Because  of  these  things 
he  now  beheves  that  the  Great  Ruler  has  heard  him  and  he  gives 
him  thanks. 

Now  the  sick  man's  bed  is  beside  the  fire.  At  night  he  looks  up 
through  the  chimney  hole  and  sees  the  stars  and  he  thanks  the 
Great  Ruler  that  he  can  see  them  for  he  knows  that  he.  the  Creator, 
has  made  them.^ 

Now  it  comes  to  him  that  because  (jf  these  new  thoughts  he  may 
obtain  helj)  to  arise  from  his  bed  and  walk  again  in  this  world. 
Then  again  he  despairs  that  he  will  ever  see  the  new  day  because 
of  his  great  weakness.  Then  again  he  has  confidence  that  he  will 
see  the  new  day,  and  so  he  lives  and  sees  it. 

For  everything  he  sees  he  is  thankful.  He  thinks  of  the  Creator 
and  thanks  him  for  the  things  he  sees.  Now  he  hears  the  birds 
singing  and  he  thanks  the  (ireat  Ruler  for  their  music. 

So  then  he  thinks  that  a  thankful  heart  will  help  him. 

Now  this  man  has  been  sick  four  years  but  he  feels  that  he  will 
now  recover. 

And  the  name  of  the  sick  man  is  (  u'uiio'dai'io'-  a  council  chief 

THE    STRAN(;E    DEATH    OF    THE    SICK    M.\N 

Now  at  this  time  the  daughter  of  the  sick  man  and  her  husband 
are  sitting  outside  the  house  in  the  shed  and  the  sick  man  is  within 
alone.  The  door  is  ajar.  Now  the  daughter  and  her  husband  are 
cleaning  beans  for  the  planting.  Suddenly  they  hear  the  sick  man 
exclaim,  "  Niio'!  "■'  Then  they  hear  him  rising  in  his  bed  and  they 
think  how  he  is  but  yellow  skin  and  dried  bones  from  four  years  of 
sickness  in  bed.  Now  they  hear  him  walking  over  the  floor  toward 
the  door.  Then  the  daughter  looks  up  and  sees  her  father  coming 
out  of  doors.  He  totters  and  she  rises  (juickly  to  catch  him  but  he 
falls  dying.  Now  they  lift  him  up  and  carry  hi;n  back  within  the 
house  and  dress  him  for  burial. 

Now  he  is  dead. 

1  Sec  plate   1 1. 

2  Handsome  Lake,  one  of  tlie  fifty  liereditary  sachems,  or  lords,  lioya'ne 
means,  perfect  one  or  noble,  and  is  translated  lord  by  the  Canadian  Six 
Nations.     See  Hale,  Book  of  Rites,  p.  31,  footnote. 

5  Meaning,  So  be  it. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    F.AKE  23 


Then  the  daughter  says  to  her  husband,  "  Run  (|uickly  and  notify 
his  nephew,  Taa'wonyas.'  that  he  who  has  lain  so  many  years  in  bed 
has  gone.     Bid  him  come  imme(hatcl\." 

So  the  husl)and  runs  to  carry  the  message  to  Taa'wonyas.  And 
Taa'wonvas  says,  "  Truly  so.  Now  hasten  to  (raiant'waka,-  the 
brother  of  the  dead  man  and  say  that  he  who  lay  sick  for  so  many 
years  is  dead.     So  now  go  and  say  this." 

So  the  husband  goes  alone  to  where  ( iaiant'waka  lives  and  when 
he  has  spoken  the  wife  says,  "  (iaiant'waka  is  at  the  island  plant- 
ing." So  he  goes  there  and  says,  "  ( iaiant'waka  vour  brother  is 
dead.  He  who  was  sick  for  so  many  years  is  dead.  (Jo  at  once  U) 
his  bed." 

Then  (iaiant'waka  answers,  "Truly,  but  tirst  I  must  finish 
covering  this  small  patch  of  seed.  Then  when  I  hoe  it  over  1  will 

Now  he  who  notifies  is  Hatgwi'yot,  the  husband  of  the  daughter 
of  Cianio'dai'io'.     So  now  he  returns  home. 

Now  everyone  hearing  of  the  death  of  the  sick  man  goes  to 
where  he  lies. 

Now  first  comes  Taa'wonyas.  He  touches  the  dead  man  on  every 
part  of  his  body.  Now  he  feels  a  warm  spot  on  his  chest  and  then 
Taa'wonyas  says,  "  Hold  back  your  sadness,  friends,"  for  he  had 
discovered  the  warm  s])0t  and  because  of  this  he  tells  the  people 
that  perhaps  the  dead  man  may  revive.  Now  many  people  are 
weeping  and  the  speaker  sits  down  by  his  head. 

Now  after  some  time  (iaiant'waka  comes  in  and  feels  over  the 
body  of  the  dead  and  he  too  discovers  the  warm  spot  Init  says 
nothing  but  sits  silently  down  at  the  feet  of  the  dead  man. 

And  for  many  hours  no  one  speaks. 

Now  it  is  the  early  norning  and  the  dew  is  drying.  This  is  a 
time  of  trouble  for  he  lies  dead. 

Now  continually  Taa'wc5nyas  feels  over  the  body  "of  the  dead 
man.  ble  notices  that  the  warm  spot  is  spreading.  Now  the  time 
is  noon  and  he  feels  the  warm  blood  ])nlsing  in  his  veins.  Now  his 
lireath  CdUies  and  now  he  opens  his  eyes. 

1  Meaning,  Needle  or  Awl   Breaker,  one  of   the  fifty   sachems. 

2  Meaning,    Planter,    commonly    called    Cornplanter,    the    half    hrother    of 
Handsome  Lake.     See  p    136. 



Now  Taii'wonyas  is  speaking.  "Are  you  well?  What  think 
you?     (Isege"'  onent'gayei'  henesni'goe')  ? '" 

Now  the  people  notice  that  the  man  is  moving  his  lips  as  if  speak- 
ing but  no  words  come.  Now  this  is  near  the  noon  hour.  Now  all 
are  silent  while  Taa'wonyas  asks  again,  "  Aly  uncle,  are  you  feeling 
well  ?  (  onigent'gaiye" ) ." 

Then  comes  the  answer,  "  Yes  I  believe  myself  well."  So  these 
are  the  first  words  Ganio'dai'io'  spoke  ( "  Iwi"  nai'  o'ne't'gai'ye 
he"'  nekni'goe")." 

Now  then  he  speaks  again  saying,  "  Never  have  I  seen  such 
wondrous  visions !  Now  at  first  1  heard  some  one  speaking.  Some 
one  spoke  and  said.  '  Come  out  awhile  '  and  said  this  three  times. 
Now  since  I  saw  no  one  speaking  I  thought  that  in  my  sickness  I 
myself  was  speaking  but  I  thought  again  and  found  that  it  was 
not  my  voice.  So  I  called  out  boldly,  '  Niio' !  "  and  arose  and  went 
out  and  there  standing  in  the  clear  swept  sjxice  I  saw  three  men 
clothed  in  fine  clean  raiment.  Their  cheeks  were  painted  red  and 
it  seemed  that  they  had  been  ])ainted  the  day  before.  Only  a  few 
feathers  were  in  their  bonnets.  All  three  were  alike  and  all  seemed 
middle  aged.  Never  before  have  I  seen  such  handsome  command- 
ing men  and  they  had  in  one  hand  bows  and  arrows  as  canes.  Now 
in  their  other  hands  were  huckleberry  bushes  and  the  berries  were 
of  every  color. 

"  Then  said  the  beings,  addressing  me,  '  He  who  created  the 
world  at  the  beginning  employed  us  to  come  to  earth.  Our  visit 
now  is  not  the  only  one  we  ha\e  made.  He  commanded  us  saying 
"  (io  once  more  down  ui)on  the  earth  and  ]  this  time]  visit  him  who 
thinks  of  me.  He  is  grateful  for  my  creations,  moreover  he  wishes 
to  rise  from  sickness  and  walk  |  in  health  |  u])on  the  earth.  (]o  vou 
and  lieljj  him  to  recover."  '  1"hcn  said  the  messengers,  '  Take  these 
berries  and  eat  of  every  color.  They  will  give  you  strength  and 
your  pco])lc  with  us  will  hcl|)  you  rise.'  So  I  took  and  ate  the 
berries.  Then  said  the  beings.  '  ( )n  the  morrow  we  will  have  it  that 
a  fire  will  be  in  the  bushes  and  a  medicine  steeped  to  give  you 
strength.  We  will  appoint  Odjis'kwathe'"  and  ( iayiintgogwus,-  a 
ran  and  his  wife,  to  make  the  medicine.  Now  they  are  the  best  of 
all  the  medicine  people.  Early  in  the  morning  we  will  see  them 
and  at  that  time  you  will  have  the  medicine  for  your  use,  and  be- 
fore noon  the  unused  medicine  will  be  cast  awav  because  vou  will 

^  Dry  Pudding.     -  Dipped  Tobacco. 


THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  25 

have  recovered.  Now  moreover  before  noon  many  people  will 
gather  at  the  council  house.  These  people  will  be  your  relatives 
and  will  see  you.  They  will  have  gathered  the  early  strawberries^ 
and  made  a  strawl)erry  feast,  and  moreover  will  have  strawberry 
wine  sweetened  with  sugar.  Then  will  all  drink  the  juice  of  the 
berry  and  thank  the  Creator  for  your  recovery  and  moreover  they 
severally  will  call  upon  you  by  your  name  as  a  relative  according 
as  }ou  are.' 

"  Now  when  the  day  came  I  went  as  a]ipointed  and  all  the  people 
saw  me  coming  and  it  was  as  predicted." 


"  Now  the  messengers  spoke  to  me  and  said  that  they  would  now 
tell  me  how  things  ought  to  be  upon  the  eartli.  The^'  said:  'Do 
not  allow  any  one  to  say  that  you  have  had  great  fortune  in  being 
able  to  rise  again.  The  favor  of  the  four  beings  is  not  alone  for 
you  and  the  Creator  is  willing  to  helji  all  mankind." 

"  Now  on  that  same  day  the  Great  Feather-  and  the  Harvest 
dances  were  to  be  celebrated  and  at  this  time  the  beings  told  me 
that  my.  relatives  would  restore  me.  '  Your  feelings  and  spirits 
are  low,'  they  said,  "  and  nuist  Ije  aroused.  Then  will  you 
obtain  power  to  reco\'er.'  X'erily  the  servants  of  the  Creator 
(  Hadio"ya''geono" )  said  this.  Now  moreover  they  com  nanded 
that  henceforth  dances  of  this  same  kind  should  be  held  and  thanks- 
giving offered  whenever  the  strawberries  were  ripe.  Furthermore 
they  said  that  the  juice  of  the  berry  must  be  drunk  by  the  children 
and  the  aged  and  all  the  people.  I'ruly  all  must  drink  of  the  berry 
juice,  for  they  said  that  the  sweet  water  of  the  berries  was  a 
medicine  and  that  the  early  strawberries  were  a  great  medicine. 
So  they  bade  me  tell  this  story  to  my  people  when  I  move  upon  the 
earth  again.  Now  thev  said,  '  We  shall  continually  reveal  things 
unto  you.  We,  the  servants  of  him  who  made  us,  say  that  as  he 
employed  us  to  unto  }'ou  to  reveal  his  will,  so  you  must  carry 
it  to  your  people.  Now  we  are  thev  whom  he  created  when  he  made 
the  world  and  our  duty  is  to  watch  over  and  care  for  mankind. 
Now  there  are  four  of  us  but  the  fourth  is  not  here  present.  When 
we  called  vou  bv  name  and  vou  heard,  he  returned  to  tell  the  news. 

^  The  earliest  of  the  wild  strawl)erries  are  thouglit  to  he  of  great  medicinal 
value  and  are  eagerly  eaten  as  soon  as  ripe.  So  sacred  a  plant  is  the 
strawberry  that  it  is  thought  to  grow  along  the  "  heaven  road."  \  person 
recovering  from  a  severe  illness  says,  "  I  almost  ate  strawl)erries." 

2  The  Osto'wa'go'wa,  the  chief  religious  dance.      See  Morgan,  p.  279. 


'J1iis  will  bring  joy  into  the  hcavcn-world  of  our  Creator.  So  it 
is  that  the  fourth  is  not  with  us  hut  you  shall  see  him  at  another 
time  and  when  that  time  is  at  hand  you  shall  know.  Xow  further- 
more we  must  remind  you  of  the  evil  things  that  you  have  done 
and  you  nuist  repent  of  all  things  that  you  believe  to  have  been 
evil.  You  think  that  you  ha\e  done  wrong  beeause  of  O'gi'we. 
Ye'onda'tha  and  Gone'owo"^  and  because  you  partook  of  strong 
drink.  N'erily  you  must  do  as  you  think  for  whatsoever  you  think 
is  evil  is  evil."  " 


"  'And  now  behold!  Look  through  the  valley  between  two  hills. 
Look  between  the  sunrise  and  the  noon  !  " 

■'  So  1  looked,  and  in  the  valley  there  was  a  deeper  hollow  from 
which  smoke  was  arising  and  steam  as  if  a  hot  place  were  beneath. 

"  Then  spoke  the  messengers  saying,  "  What  do  you  see?  ' 

"  I  answered,  '  I  see  a  place  in  the  valley  from  which  smoke  is 
arising  and  it  is  also  steaming  as  a  hot  place  were  beneath.' 

"  Then  said  the  beings,  '  Truly  you  have  spoken.  It  is  the  truth. 
In  that  place  a  man  is  buried.  He  lies  between  the  two  hills  in  the 
hollow  in  the  valley  and  a  great  message  is  buried  with  him.  Once 
we  commanded  that  man  to  proclaijn  that  message  to  the  world  but 
he  reftised  to  obey.  So  now  he  will  never  rise  f  ro  n  that  spot  for 
he  refused  to  obey.  So  now  to  you,  therefore,  we  say,  proclaim 
the  message  that  we  give  you  and  tell  it  truly  before  all  people.' 

Now  the  first  thing  has  been  finished  and  it  remains  for  us  to 
uncover  all  wickedness  before  you.'     So  they  said." 

1  See  notes,  p.  2i. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  27 



"  Now  the  l)cings  spoke  saxing,  '  We  must  now  relate  our 
message.  We  will  uncover  the  evil  upon  the  earth  and  show  how 
men  spoil  the  laws  the  ( Ireal  Ruler  has  made  and  therel)\-  made 
him  angry." 

"  '  Idle  Creator  made  man  a  living  creature.' 

"  ■  P^our  words  tell  a  great  story  of  wrong  and  the  Creator  is 
sad  hecause  of  the  trouhle  they  hring,  so  go  and  tell  your  people." 

"  ■  The  first  word  is  ( )ne'ga'.'  It  seems  that  you  never  have 
known  that  this  word  stands  for  a  great  and  monstrous  evil  and 
has  reared  a  high  mound  of  hones.  {ia''nigoentdo"'tha.  you  lose 
your  minds  and  one'ga'  causes  it  all.  Alas,  many  are  fond  of  it  and 
are  too  fond  of  it.  So  now  all  must  now  say,  "  1  will  use  it  never- 
more. As  long  as  I  live,  as  long  as  the  numher  of  luy  days  is  I  will 
never  use  it  again.  I  now  stop.'"  So  must  all  say  when  they  hear 
this  message."  Now  the  l)eings,  the  servants  of  the  (ircat  Ruler, 
the  messengers  of  him  who  created  us,  said  this.  Eurthermore 
they  said  that  the  Creator  made  one'ga'  and  gave  it  to  our  younger 
brethren,  the  white  man,  as  a  medicine  but  they  use  it  for  evil  for 
thev  drink  it  for  other  pur])()ses  than  medicine  and  drink  instead 
of  work  and  idlers  drink  one'ga'.  Xo,  the  Creator  did  not  make 
it  for  you."" 

So  they  said  and  he  said,     b^.nia'iehuk  !- 


"  Now  spoke  the  beings  and  said,  '  We  now  speak  of  the  second 
word.      This   makes    the    Creator   angry.      The    word    is    ( iot'go"".'^ 

'  Whiskey  or  Rum. 

2  Enia'iehiik  meaning,  It  zcas  that  Tcav. 

'.A  certain  numlier  of  the  Seneca  Troqunis  still  cling  to  the  lielief  in 
witchcraft  although  thev  are  loath  to  admit  it  to  any  one  in  wlmm  they  have 
not  implicit  confidence.  While  they  assert  that  witchcraft  was  introduced 
among  them  l)y  some  Algonquin  trihe  which  they  had  adopted,  their  early 
legends  and  traditions  contain  many  allusions  to  witches  and  witchcraft. 
There  are  at  least  two  distinct  methods  employed  hy  witches  to  accomplish 
their  ends.     'J"he  first,  it  is  claimed,  is  the  older  way  and  is  the  employment 


Witches  are  people  without  their  right  minds.  They  make  disease 
and  spread  sickness  to  make  the  Hving  die.  They  cut  short  the 
numbered  days,  for  the  Creator  has  given  each  person  a  certain 
number  of  days  in  which  to  Hve  in  this  world. 

"  '  Now  this  must  you  do:  When  you  have  told  this  message  and 
the  witches  hear  it  they  will  confess  before  all  the  people  and  will 
say,  "  I  am  doing  this  evil  thing  but  now  I  cease  it  forever,  as  long 
as  I  live."  Some  witches  are  more  evil  and  can  not  speak  in  public 
so  these  must  come  privately  and  confess  to  you,  Handsome  Lake, 
or  a  preacher  of  this  Gai'wiio'.  Now  some  are  most  evil  and  they 
must   go   far   out   uj^on   an   abandoned    trail   and   there   they   must 

of  what  is  described  by  informants  as  analogous  to  "  malific  mental  sugges- 
tion," either  verbal  or  telepathic.  Such  witches  were  able  to  assume  the 
form  of  ancient  monsters,  the  nia"gwahe  or  mammoth  bear  being  the  favorite 
form.  They  had  power  of  transforming  people  into  beasts,  of  imprisoning 
them  within  trees  without  destroying  the  human  nature  or  sensibilities  of 
their  victims.  Many  stories  are  related  of  how  chivalrous  young  men  fresli 
from  the  dream  fast  were  alile  to  release  the  unhappy  prisoners  from  the 
spells  that  bound  them. 

The  second  and  modern  class  of  witches  work  their  evil  spells  by  intro- 
ducing into  the  bodies  of  their  victims  by  supernatural  means  a  small  needle- 
like splinter  pointed  on  either  end  and  having  a  central  eye  to  which  was 
tied  the  hair  of  the  witch,  a  splinter  of  bone  from  the  fibula  of  a  deer,  a 
worm  or  some  like  object.  Instances  where  such  things  have  been  drawn 
from  bewitched  persons  are  commonly 'reported. 

A  witch  can  work  fearlessly  and  successfully  as  long  as  she  remains  un- 
known to  the  victim  and  under  some  circumstances  even  when  known.  A 
"  witched  "  person  is  often  able  to  see  as  in  a  vision  the  witch  wherever  she 
goes  and  is  likewise  able  to  tell  when  she  is  about  to  approach  the  house. 
Witches  fear  the  threat  of  an  angry  person  to  kill  them.  Such  a  threat  if 
an  earnest  one  is  an  effectual  charm  against  further  annoyance.  To  burn  the 
object  that  a  witch  has  introduced  into  one's  body  will  torture  the  witch  and 
kill  her.  Such  objects  are  not  often  burned.  If  revenge  is  desired  the 
victim,  if  sufficiently  angry,  can  throw  the  oliject  through  space  and  injure 
the  witch  wherever  he  wishes.  A  person  who  successfully  resists  and  de- 
stroys another  witch's  power  may  become  a  witch  if  so  desired. 

To  torture  a  witch,  force  a  confession  and  exact  a  promise  of  repentance, 
take  a  living  bird,  black  in  color  (a  hen  is  now  usually  employed)  and  carry 
it  into  the  woods  at  midnight.  Here  build  a  fire  and  then  split  open  the 
bird's  body,  extract  its  beating  heart  and  hang  it  by  its  chords  over  a  small 
fire  to  roast  slowly.  The  witch  will  then  exert  every  possible  means  to  reach 
the  spot  and  beg  that  the  heart  be  taken  from  the  fire  before  it  is  consumed. 
At  such  a  time  any  promise  may  be  exacted,  for  the  witch  is  powerless. 
If  the  heart  is  consumed  the  witch  will  die  of  a  "  burnt  heart."  Witch  poison 
may  be  extracted  by  putting  fine  sifted  ashes  on  the  afflicted  part  and  staying 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  29 

confess  before  the  Creator  alone.     This  course  may  be  taken  by 
witches  of  whom  no  one  knows. 

"  ■  Now  when  they  go  they  must  say : 

"  Our  Creator,  O  listen  to  me ! 
I  am  a  miserable  creature. 
I  think  that  way 
So  now  I  cease. 
Now  this  is  appointed 
For  all  of  my  days. 
As  long  as  I  live  here 
In  this  earth-world. 
I   have  spoken." 

"  '  In  this  manner  all  must  say  and  say  truly,  then  the  prayer  will 
be  sufficient.'  "' 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  Now  the  beings  spoke  again  saying.  '  This  is  the  third  word. 
It  is  a  sad  one  and  the  Creator  is  very  sad  because  of  this  third 
word.  It  seems  that  you  have  never  known  that  a  great  pile  of 
human  bodies  lies  dead  because  of  this  word,  Ono'ityi'yende,  the 
niga'hos'saa',   the   secret   poisons   in   little   bundles   named   Gawen- 

in  bed  until  the  poison  comes  out.  The  charm  will  then  be  found  in  the 
ashes.  The  spirits  of  great  witches  are  able  to  return  and  possess  another 
witch.  A  witcli  who  has  sucli  a  "  friend  "  is  especially  favored,  for  m  time 
of  need  the  spirit-witch  will  direct  her  to  money,  goods  or  food.  Witches 
do  not  always  injure  people  who  liave  offended  them  but  more  often  tlicir 
children  or  other  near  relatives.  This  is  done  that  the  person  they  desire 
to  punish  may  see  an  innocent  person  suffer  for  their  offense  and  so  be 
tortured  the  more. 

"Witch  doctors"  are  of  two  classes:  witclics  who  are  willing  to  pit  tiicir 
powers  against  other  witches  ;  and  medicine  men  who  have  made  a  special 
study  of  the  charms  that  will  offset  witch  spells.  This  class  may  also  be 
divided  into  two  divisions,  those  who  make  a  regular  profession  of  dis- 
pelling witch  influences,  of  discovering  the  cause  of  mysterious  ailments,  of 
extracting  the  object  that  causes  the  trouble  and  of  identifying  witches,  and 
those  who  by  reason  of  some  special  service  they  have  rendered  some  spirit 
of  nature  have  been  rewarded  with  magical  powers,  great  wisdom  and  im- 
munity from  malific  influences.  This  class  renders  its  services  gratuitously. 
Small  false  faces  worn  on  the  person  and  frequent  invocations  of  the 
Thunder  spirit  with  liberal  offerings  of  sacred  tobacco  are  potent  charms 
against  witches.  The  False  Face  company  has  an  annual  ceremony  in  wdiich 
witch  spirits  are  expelled  from  the  community.  The  I"dos  company  (q.  v.) 
is  said  to  be  the  survival  of  the  older  witch  society  introduced  among  the 
Seneca  by  the  Nanticoke.    Its  members  are  reputed  to  possess  magic  powers. 

30  Ni:\V    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

nodus'liii  (compelling  charms^).  Now  the  Creator  who  made  us 
CO  rmands  that  they  who  do  this  evil,  when  they  hear  this  message, 
must  sto])  it  immediately  and  do  it  nevermore  while  they  live  u])on 
this  earth-world.  It  matters  not  how  much  destruction  they  have 
wrought  —  let  them  repent  and  not  fail  for  fear  the  Creator  will 
not  accei)t  them  as  his  own.'  "' 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Rniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  word.  It  is  sad.  It  is  the  fourth  word.  It  is 
the  wa_\'  ^'()ndwi'nias  swa'yas.- 

"  ■  Now  the  Creator  ordained  thai   women  should  bear  children. 

"  '  Now  a  certain  young  married  woman  had  children  and 
sulTered  nuich.  Now  she  is  with  child  again  and  her  mother  wishing 
to  prevent  further  sutTerings  designs  to  administer  a  medicine  to 
cut  ofif  the  child  and  to  pre\ent  forever  other  children  from  com- 
ing.'' So  the  mother  makes  the  medicine  and  gives  it.  Now  when 
she  does  this  she  forever  cuts  away  her  daughter's  string  of  children. 
Now  it  is  because  of  such  things  that  the  Creator  is  sad.  He  created 
life  to  live  and  he  wishes  such  evils  to  cease.  He  wishes  those  who 
ein])l(jy  such  medicines  to  cease  such  practices  forevermore.  Now 
they  must  sto])  when  thev  hear  this  message.  Co  and  tell  vour 
people."  '" 

So  thev  said  and  he  said.     F.niaiehuk. 

1  Charms.  Should  a  person  die  holding  a  secret,  one  may  discover  it  Iiy 
sleeping  upon  the  ground  with  a  handful  of  the  grave  dirt  beneath  his  head. 
Then.  //  all  conditions  are  perfect,  the  dead  person  will  appear  in  tlirce  suc- 
cessive visions  and  reveal  its  mystery. 

A  young  man,  wishing  to  l)ecome  a  swift  runner,  mav  add  to  liis  powers 
by  concealing  in  his  belt  a  l)one  from  the  grave  of  some  celebrated  runner 
of  the  past.  It  is  said  that  most  famous  runners  of  the  League  carried  these 

A  warriiir  who  wishes  to  guard  against  sudden  attack  from  behind  may 
make  an  unfailing  charm  l)y  cutting  three  slits  in  tiie  liack  of  liis  neck  and 
rubbing  into  the  wounds  tlie  oil  extracted  from  tlie  scalps  of  enemies.  A 
peculiar  soft  white  flesh  will  fill  up  the  cuts  and  wlien  completely  healed 
will  protrude.  Should  an  enemy  then  approach  tliese  protruding  scars  will 
quiver  and  warn  the  warrior  of  danger. 

The  most  effective  charm   for  drawing  riciies  is  tlie  tooth   of  a  nia'gwah?. 

-  Meaning  "  she  cuts  it   off  liy  abortion." 

■'Tlie  Iroquois  knew  of  such  an  lierl).  T  find  it  mentioned  li\  I)r  Peter 
Wilson,  the  Cayuga,  and  it  was  iiointed  out  to  me  at  Onondaga  in  191 1. 
The  Seneca  and  Onondaga  belief  is  that  every  woman  has  a  certain  number 
of  children  predestined  to  them  and  that  they  are  fastened  on  a  stringlike 
runner  like  tubers,  or  lijje  eggs  within  a  bir(J. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  3 1 


"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Go  tell  your  people  that  the  Clreat  Ruler  is  sad  because  of 
what  people  do. 

"  '  The  Creator  has  made  it  so  that  the  married  should  live 
together  and  that  children  should  grow  from  them. 

"  "Now  it  often  happens  that  it  is  only  a  little  while  when  people 
are  married  that  the  husband  speaks  evil  of  his  wife  because  he 
does  not  wish  to  care  for  her  children.  Now  a  man  who  does  that 
stirs  up  trouble  with  his  wife  and  soon  deserts  her  and  his  children. 
Then  he  searches  for  another  woman  and  when  he  has  found  her 
he  marries  her.  Then  when  he  finds  her  with  child  he  goes  away 
from  her  and  leaves  her  alone.  Again  he  looks  for  another  woman 
and  when  he  has  lived  with  her  for  a  time  and  sees  her  growing 
large,  he  deserts  her,  the  third  woman. 

"  '  Now  this  is  true.  We,  the  messengers,  saw  hi  n  leave  the  two 
women  and  the  Creator  himself  saw  him  desert  the  third  and  pun- 
ished him.  Now  a  sure  torment  in  the  after  life  is  for  him  who 
leaves  two  women  with  child  but  the  Creator  alone  knows  what  the 
punishment  is  for  the  man  who  leaves  the  third."  '" 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  The  Creator  has  ordered  that  man  and  wife  should  rear  their 
children  well,  love  them  and  keep  them  in  health.  This  is  the 
Creator's  rule.  We,  the  messengers,  have  seen  both  men  and 
women  desert  each  other  when  children  come.  The  woman  dis- 
covers that  the  man,  her  husband,  loves  his  child  and  she  is  very 
jealous  and  spreads  evil  reports  of  him.  She  does  this  for  an  ex- 
cuse before  the  world  to  leave  him.  Thus  the  messengers  say  that 
the  Creator  desires  men  and  women  to  cease  such  mischief."  "' 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Tell  your  people  that  the  Creator  has  ordered  regular  mar- 
riage customs.  When  the  young  people  are  old  enough  to  marry, 
tell  them  so.  When  they  marry  they  will  live  pleasantly.  Now  it 
may  happen  that  the  girl's  mother  discovers  that  she  is  very  hai)py 


with  her  husband.  Then  she  endeavors  to  make  her  daughter  angry 
with  her  husband  when  he  returns  from  a  journey.  But  when  the 
husband  returns  the  young  wife  forgets  the  evil  advice  and  greets 
him  lovingly.  Now  the  older  woman,  the  mother,  seeing  this, 
speaks  again  hoping  to  stir  up  an  ill  feeling.  Says  the  old  woman, 
"  My  daughter,  your  spirits  are  dull,  you  are  not  bright.  When  I 
was  young  I  was  not  so  agreeable.  I  was  harsh  with  my  hu.sband." 
Now  the  Creator  is  sad  because  of  the  tendency  of  old  women  to 
breed  mischief.  Such  work  must  stop.  Tell  your  people  it  must 
stop.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  The  married  often  live  well  together  for  a  while.  Then  a  man 
becomes  ugly  in  temper  and  abuses  his  wife.  It  seems  to  afford 
him  pleasure.  Now  because  of  such  things  the  Creator  is  very  sad. 
So  he  bids  us  to  tell  you  that  such  evils  must  stop.  Neither  man 
nor  woman  must  strike  each  other.'     So  they  said. 

"  Now  furtiiermore  they  said,  '  We  will  tell  you  what  people  must 
do.  It  is  the  way  he  calls  best.  Love  one  another  and  do  not 
strive  for  another's  undoing,  i'^ven  as  you  desire  good  treatment, 
so  render  it.    Treat  your  wife  well  and  she  will  treat  you  well.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  This  concerns  short  marriages. 

"  '  Now  some  live  together  peaceably  and  keep  the  family  as 
should  be.  Then  after  a  time  the  man  resolves  to  go  off  on  a 
hunting  excursion  in  the  woods  for  a  certain  number  of  days.  So 
he  goes,  having  agreed  with  his  wife  about  it.  All  is  well  and  he 
returns  with  a  load  of  game.  He  feels  well  and  thinks  he  is  doing 
well  in  thus  providing  for  his  family.  On  his  way  homeward  he 
meets  some  one  who  tells  him  that  in  his  absence  his  wife  has  been 
living  with  another  man.  When  he  hears  this  report  he  feels  sad 
and  angry.  He  refuses  to  go  to  his  home  and  turns  from  his  path 
and  goes  to  his  relatives.  Now  whoever  makes  mischief  of  this 
kind  does  a  great  wrong  before  the  Creator.  So  he  bids  his  people 
to  forever  stop  such  evil  practices.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  33 

SECTION    12 

.      "  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Now  this  concerns  both  husband  and  wife.  Now  it  may  hap- 
pen that  a  man  and  wife  Hve  together  happily.  At  length  the  man 
thinks  that  he  will  go  to  another  settlement  to  visit  relatives  there. 
His  wife  agrees  and  he  goes.  Now  when  he  gets  to  the  village  he  in- 
duces some  agreeable  woman  to  live  with  him  saying  he  is  single. 
Then  after  some  time  the  man  goes  back  to  his  own  family.  His 
wife  treats  him  cordially  as  if  no  trouble  had  occurred.     Now  we, 

^  the  messengers,  say  that  the  woman  is  good  in  the  eyes  of  her 
Creator  and  has  a  place  reserved  for  her  in  the  heaven-world.  Now 
the  woman  knew  all  that  had  been  done  in  the  other  settlement  but 
she  thought   it  best  to   be   peaceful   and   remain   silent.     And   the 

I  Creator  says  that  she  is  right  and  has  her  path  toward  the  heaven- 

1  world,  but  he,  the  man,  is  on  his  way  to  the  house  of  the  Wicked 

!  One.'  " 

[      So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

(SECTION    i^ 


Now  another  message. 

This  concerns  a  certain  thing  that  human  creatures  follow.     It 

is  concerning  gakno'we'haat.     Some  men  desire  constant  new  ex- 

'perience,  that  is  some  men  are  always  following  3'e'o"'.     Now  it  is 

a  great  evil  for  men  to  have  such  desires.     This  is  a  thing  that  the 

so  sinful   must   confess.     A  man   who   desires   to  know  gagwego" 

yc'o"'sho'  will  never  be  satisfied,  for  ye'o"'  will  arise  whom  he  can 

not  know  and  he  will  fall  flat.     Now  we,  the  messengers,  say  that 

all  this  is  sinful  and  men  must  not  follow  such  desires.'  "' 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

sij  rioN   14 

Now  another  message. 

This  is  what  your  people  do. 
"  "  An    old     woman     punished     her     children  ^     unjustly.       The 
Creator  is  sad  because  of  such  things  and  bids  us  tell  you  that  such 
practices  must  cease.'     So  they  said. 

1  Handsome  Lake  was  ever  the  lover  and  champion  of  children.  There  are 
many  instances  in  the  Gaiwiio  relating  to  the  care  and  rearing  of  children. 
The  mode  of  punishment  here  referred  to  was  one  of  long  usage.  Some- 
times the  mother  would  fill  her  mouth  with  water  and  blow  it  into  the  face 
-ii  the  little  offender,  repeating  until  obedience  was  enforced.  Punishment 
3y  violence  as  by  whipping  or  striking  was  discountenanced.     The  mother 


"  '  Now  this  is  the  way  ordained  by  the  Creator :  Talk  slowly 
and  kindly  to  children  and  never  punish  then;  unjustly.  When  a 
child  will  not  obey  let  the  mother  say,  ■"  Come  to  the  water  and  I 
will  immerse  you."  If  after  this  warning  the  child  is  still  obstinate 
she  must  take  it  to  the  water's  edge  and  say,  "  Do  you  now  obey?  " 
and  she  must  say  so  again  and  if  at  the  third  time  there  is  no  obedi- 
ence then  the  child  must  be  thrust  in  the  water.  But  if  the  child  cries 
for  mercy  it  must  have  it  and  the  woman  must  not  throw  it  into 
the  water.     If  she  does  she  does  evil.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    15 

"  '  Now  another  message  of  things  not  right. 

"  '  Parents  disregard  the  warnings  of  their  children,  ^^^^en  a 
child  says,  "  Mother,  1  want  you  to  stop  wrongdoing,"  the  child 
speaks  straight  words  and  the  Creator  says  that  the  child  speaks 
right  and  the  mother  must  obey.  I'^n-thermore  the  Creator  j)ro- 
claims  that  such  words  from  a  child  arc  wonderful  and  that  the 
mother  who  disregards  the  n  takes  the  wicked  part.  The  mother 
mav  replv.  "  Daughter,  stop  your  noise.  1  know  better  than  you. 
I  am  the  older  and  you  are  but  a  child.  Think  not  that  you  can  in- 
fluence me  l)y  your  speaking."  Now  when  you  tell  this  message  to 
your  people  say  that  it  is  wrong  to  speak  to  children  in  such 
words.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    16 

"  '  Now  another  message. 

Tell  your  people  that  the  Creator  is  sad  because  of  what  they 
are  doing. 

"  '  Some  people  live  together  well  as  man  and  wife  and  family, 
but  the  man  of  the  family  uses  strong  drink.  Then  when  he  comes 
home  he  lifts  up  his  child  to  fondle  it  and  he  is  drunk.  Now  we, 
the  messengers  of  the  Creator,  say  that  this  is  not  right  for  if  a 
man  filled  with  strong  drink  touches  his  child  he  burns  its  blood. 
Tell  your  people  to  heed  this  warning.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

who  was  intrusted  with  the  care  of  children  was  accustomed  to  tell  her  chil- 
dren what  was  wrong  and  allow  them  by  experience  to  know  that  her  word 
was  to  be  relied  upon.  A  boy  remained  under  the  discipline  of  his  mother 
until  the  age  of  sixteen  when  lie  was  turned  over  to  the  training  of  his 
father.  If  the  boy  was  unruly  and  without  ambition  the  mother  received  the 
blame   and  was  sometimes  punished. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  35 

SECTION    17 

"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Some  people  live  together  righteously  as  man  and  wife  ac- 
cording as  the  Creator  ordained,  but  they  have  no  child.  When  this 
is  so  let  this  be  the  way:  If  the  wife's  sister  has  children,  of  these 
let  the  wife  without  issue  take  from  one  to  three  and  rear  theai  and 
thereby  fulfil  her  duty  to  the  Creator.  Moreover  when  a  woman 
takes  children  she  must  rear  them  well  as  if  born  of  herself.  We, 
the  messengers,  say  that  you  must  tell  this  to  your  people.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    18 

"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Tell  your  people  that  ofttimes  when  a  woman  hears  that  a 
child  is  born  and  goes  to  see  it,  she  returns  and  says  in  many 
houses  where  she  .stops  that  its  mother's  husband  is  not  its  father. 
Now  we  say  that  it  is  exceedingly  wrong  to  speak  such  evil  of  chil- 
dren. The  Creator  formed  the  children  as  they  are ;  therefore,  let 
the  people  stop  their  evil  sayings.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Now  the  Creator  of  mankind  ordained  that  people  should  live 
to  an  old  age.  He  appointed  that  when  a  woman  becomes  old  she 
should  be  without  strength  and  unable  to  work.^  Now  the  Creator 
says  that  it  is  a  great  wrong  to  be  unkind  to  our  grandmothers. 
The  Creator  forbids  unkindness  to  the  old.  We,  the  messengers, 
say  it.  The  Creator  appointed  this  way :  he  designed  that  an  old 
woman  should  be  as  a  child  again  and  when  she  becomes  so  the 
Creator  wishes  the  grandchildren  to  help  her,  for  only  because  she 
is,  they  are.  Whosoever  does  right  to  the  aged  does  right  in  the 
sight  of  the  Creator.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

(So  many  words,  Odi'waga''de,  end  of  first  day's  preaching) 

Recitation  of  the  second  day 

SECTION    20 

"  '  Now  another  message. 
"  '  A  wav  that  was  followed. 

1  The  wisdom  of  the  aged,  especially  upon  ceremonial  matters,  was  never 


"  '  Sometimes  a  mother  is  ready  to  feed  her  family.  When  she 
is  ready  to  bid  them  sit  down,  she  glances  out  and  sees  some  one 
coming  and  straightway  hides  the  food.  A  woman  visitor  comes 
in.  Now  after  some  conversation  the  visitor  says  she  is  unwell 
and  goes  out.  Then  the  family  commences  to  eat.  And  the  Creator 
says  that  who  follow  such  tricks  must  repent  as  soon  as  they  hear 
this  message,  for  such  practices  are  most  wicked.'  " 

"  Now  the  messengers  said  this." 

"  '  Now  the  Creator  made  food  for  all  creatures  and  it  must  be 
free  for  all.  He  ordained  that  people  should  live  in  communities. 
Now  when  visitors  enter  a  lodge  the  woman  must  always  say, 
"  Sede'koni"',''  come  cat.  Now  it  is  not  right  to  refuse  what  is 
offered.  The  visitor  must  take  two  or  three  bites  at  least  and  say, 
"  Niawe"'."    Tell  this  to  all  your  people.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    21  -  ,         "i        ■•■    ■<  ■-  ' 

"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Now  this  is  right. 

"  '  When  a  woman  hears  children  playing  near  her  lodge  she 
must  call  them  in  and  ask  them  to  eat.  The  Creator  says  that  this 
is  right  for  some  children  are  of  poor  parents  and  have  little  to  eat. 
The  Creator  loves  poor  children  and  whosoever  feeds  the  poor  and 
unfortunate  does  right  before  him.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    22  .  ■         ii      ^  1   "  ■  'T 

"  '  Now  another  message. 

" '  When  a  woman  sees  an  unfortunate  girl  who  has  neither 
parents  nor  settled  home  and  calls  her  in  and  helps  her  repair  her 
clothing,  cleanse  herself  and  comb  her  hair,  she  does  right  and  has 
favor  in  the  sight  of  her  Creator.  He  loves  the  poor  and  the  woman 
does  right  before  him.  So  we,  the  messengers,  say  that  you  must 
tell  your  people  to  continue  to  do  this  good  thing.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  The  Creator  is  sad  because  of  the  sins  of  the  beings  that  he 

"  '  He  ordained  that  mankind  should  live  as  social  beings  in  com- 


"  '  Now  it  may  happen  that  a  woman  sets  out  to  destroy  good 
feehngs  between  neighbors  by  teUing  go'diodia'se  (stories  that  aug- 
ment by  repetition).  Now  this  woman  goes  to  a  house  and  says, 
■'  I  love  you  and  because  I  do  I  will  tell  you  a  secret.  The  woman 
in  the  next  house  speaks  evil  of  you."'  Now  heretofore  the  two 
women  had  been  friends  but  upon  hearing  this  story  the  woman 
becomes  an  enemy  of  her  former  friend.  Then  the  evil  story-teller 
goes  to  the  woman  whom  she  lied  about  and  tells  her  the  hard  words 
that  the  other  woman  has  spoken.  Then  is  the  liar  happy  having 
started  a  feud,  and  she  hastens  from  house  to  house  to  tell  of  it. 
Now  great  troubles  arise  and  soon  a  tight,  and  one  woman  causes 
it  all.  Therefore  the  Creator  is  very  sad.  Tell  your  people  that 
such  things  must  stop  the  moment  this  message  is  told. 

"  '  Now  the  Creator  has  ordained  another  way.  He  has  ordained 
that  human  creatures  should  be  kind  one  to  the  other  and  help  each 
other.  When  a  woman  visits  another  house  she  must  help  at  the 
work  in  progress  and  talk  pleasantly.  If  she  relates  jokes  they 
must  always  be  upon  herself.  If  she  speaks  harshly  of  others  the 
woman  of  the  house  must  say,  "  I  remember  the  desires  of  our 
Creator.  I  can  not  hear  what  you  say.  I  can  not  take  that  evil 
story."  So  the  trouble  is  ended  there.  Now  the  Creator  says  that 
the  woman  is  true  who  refuses  to  hear  evil  reports.  She  cuts  off 
the  evil  at  its  beginning  and  it  does  not  go  from  her.  So  she  has 
won  favor  before  the  Creator."  "' 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  *  Now  another  message. 

"  '  The  Creator  who  made  you  is  sad. 

"  '  The  Creator  made  every  person  with  a  different  face. 

"  '  Now  a  man  talks  saying  that  he  is  far  more  handsome  than 
other  men.  He  boasts  that  he  is  exceedingly  handsome  and  grand. 
But  the  Creator  says  all  this  is  very  wrong.  The  vain  must  repent 
and  never  boast  again.'     So  they  said. 

"  '  Now  animals  seem  alike  to  you.  A  wild  animal  that  you  have 
once  seen  you  can  not  easily  say  you  have  seen  again.  But  people 
are  different  before  you.  Now  when  a  man  is  handsome  let  him 
thank  his  Creator  for  his  comliness.'     So  they  said. 

Now  furthermore  a  man  says  "  I  am  the  strongest  man  of  all. 
There  is  no  one  who  can  throw  me  to  the  ground.""  A  man  who 
talks  thus  is  a  boaster  before  the  people.     Now  the  Creator  says 


that  such  boasting  is  evil.  The  Creator  endowed  the  man  with 
strength  and  therefore  he  should  not  boast  but  thank  the  giver  who 
is  the  Creator.     So  tell  your  people  these  things.'     So  they  said. 

"  '  Now  furthermore  a  man  says,  "  I  am  the  swiftest  runner  of 
the  world.  No  one  can  outrun  me."  Now  he  regards  himself  as  a 
mighty  man  and  boasts  before  his  people.  Now  the  Creator  says 
that  such  boasting  is  evil.  The  Creator  endowed  the  man  with  his 
speed  and  he  should  offer  thanks  and  not  boast.  So  we,  the  mes- 
sengers, say  your  people  must  cease  their  boasting.'  "  ^ 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Three  things  that  our  younger  brethren  (the  white  people) 
do  are  right  to  follow. 

"  '  Now,  the  first.  The  white  man  works  on  a  tract  of  cultivated 
ground  and  harvests  food  for  his  family.  So  if  he  should  die  they 
still  have  the  ground  for  help.  If  any  of  your  people  have  cultivated 
ground  let  them  not  be  proud  on  that  account.  If  one  is  proud 
there  is  sin  within  him  but  if  there  be  no  pride  there  is  no  sin. 

"  '  Now,  the  second  thing.  It  is  the  way  a  white  man  builds  a 
house.  He  builds  one  warm  and  fine  appearing  so  if  he  dies  the 
family  has  the  house  for  help.  Whoso  among  you  does  this  does 
right,  always  providing  there  is  no  pride.  If  there  is  pride  it  is 
evil  but  if  there  is  none,  it  is  well. 

"  '  Now  the  third.  The  white  man  keeps  horses  and  cattle.  Now 
there  is  no  evil  in  this  for  they  are  a  help  to  his  family.  So  if  he 
dies  his  family  has  the  stock  for  help.  Now  all  this  is  right  if  there 
is  no  pride.  No  evil  will  follow  this  practice  if  the  animals  are  well 
fed,  treated  kindly  and  not  overworked.    Tell  this  to  your  people.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  relatives. 

This  concerns  education.     It  is  concerning  studying  in  English 

Now    let   the   Council    appoint    twelve   people    to    study,    two 
from  each  nation  of  the  six.     So  many  white  people  are  about  you 
that  you  must  study  to  know  their  ways.'  '' 
So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

1  A  more  complete  catalog  of  the  besetting  sins  of  the  Iroquois  than  set 
forth  in  the  foregoing  sections  can  not  be  found  nor  are  they  elsewhere  more 
graphically  described. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  39 

SECTION    27 

"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  Now  some  men  have  much  work  and  invite  all  their  friends  to 
come  and  aid  them  and  they  do  so.  Now  this  is  a  good  plan  and  the 
Creator  designed  it.  He  ordained  that  men  should  help  one  an- 
other ^  (adanida'osha' ).' " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    28 

"  '  Now  another  message  of  things  not  right. 

"  '  People  do  wrong  in  the  world  and  the  Creator  looks  at  all 

"  '  A  woman  sees  some  green  vegetables  and  they  are  not  hers. 
She  takes  them  wrongly.  Now  she  is  yeno"'skwaswa'do"',  a  thiev- 
ing woman.  Tell  your  people  that  petty  thieving  must  cease.'  So 
they  said. 

"  '  Now  the  Creator  gave  Diohe''ko" "  for  a  living.  When  a 
woman  sees  a  new  crop  and  wishes  to  eat  of  it  in  her  own  house, 
she  must  ask  the  owner  for  a  portion  and  offer  payment.  Then 
may  the  owner  use  her  judgment  and  accept  recompense  or  give  the 
request  freely."  "•'' 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


Now  another  message  for  you  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  It  is  not  right  for  you  to  have  so  many  dances^  and  dance 

"  'A  man  calls  a  dance  in  honor  of  some  totem  animal  from  which 
he  desires  favor  or  power.  This  is  very  wrong,  for  you  do  not 
know  what  injury  it  may  work  upon  other  people. 

^  The  bee  is  a  very  popular  institution  among  the  Iroquois.  See  Museum 
Bulletin  144,  p.  31. 

-Meaning,  "our  life  givers,"  the  corn,  l)cans  and  squashes.  See  Iroquois 
Uses  of  Maize,  p.  36. 

^  One  of  the  old  methods  of  gardening  was  to  clear  a  small  patch  in  the 
woods  hy  girdling  the  trees  and  planting  in  the  mellow  forest  mold.  Tiie 
name  and  totem  of  the  owner  of  the  garden  was  painted  on  a  post,  signify- 
ing that  the  ground  was  private  property.  The  clan  totem  gave  permission  to 
any  hard-pressed  clansman  to  take  what  he  wished  in  emergency  but  only 
in  such  a  case.  These  isolated  gardens  in  the  forests  were  objects  of 
temptation  sometimes,  as  the  prophet  intimates. 

^  The  Seneca  had  thirty-three  dances,  ten  of  which  were  acquired  from 
other  tribes.     See  p.  81. 


"  '  Tell  your  people  that  these  things  must  cease.  Tell  them  to 
repent  and  cease.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

"  '  Now  this  shall  be  the  way :  They  who  belong  to  these  totem 
animal  societies^  must  throw  tobacco  and  disband.'  So  they  said." 
"  Now  in  those  days  when  the  head  men  heard  this  message  they 
said  at  once,  in  anger,  '  We  disband,'  and  they  said  this  without 
holding  a  ceremony  as  the  messenger  had  directed. "- 



"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  Four  words  the  Creator  has  given  for  bringing  happiness.  They 

1  Animal  Societies  and  Totems.  The  Seneca  firmly  believe  that  by  using 
the  proper  formula  the  favor  of  various  animals  can  be  purchased.  The 
animal  petitioned  it  is  believed  will  make  the  person  successful  in  any  pur- 
suit in  which  itself  is  proficient.  The  charm-animal  was  sometimes  revealed 
in  a  dream,  sometimes  by  a  diviner  of  mysteries  and  was  often  sought  di- 
rectly. A  warrior  wishing  to  become  a  successful  fisherman,  for  instance, 
might  do  any  one  of  three  things.  He  might  seek  for  a  dream  that  would 
show  him  what  animal  would  make  him  an  expert  fisher,  he  might  consult 
a  "  clairvoyant  "  or  he  might  go  directly  to  a  stream  of  water  and  selecting 
some  animal  petition  its  favor. 

The  patron  of  the  fisheries  was  the  otter  and  there  is  a  special  society  of 
those  who  have  the  otter  for  a  "  friend."  The  Society  of  Otters  preserves 
the  rites  of  invocation  and  the  method  of  propitiation  and  also  the  method 
of  healing  afflicted  members. 

Other  animals  which  are  thought  to  be  "  great  medicine  "  are  the  eagle, 
the  bear,  the  buffalo  and  the  mythical  nia'gwahe  or  mammoth  bear  that 
was  alternately  a  man  and  a  beast.  To  be  ungrateful  to  these  givers  of  luck 
is  a  sin  that  arouses  the  ire  of  the  animal  who  will  punish  the  offender  by 
inflicting  him  with  some  strange  sickness.  The  offense  may  be  one  of  neg- 
lect or  altogether  unintentional  and  unknown.  It  is  then  the  duty  of  the 
society  to  appease  the  offended  animal  by  performing  the  rites  on  a  grand 
scale  that  the  individual  has  failed  to  do  in  the  ordinary  way.  The  ordinary 
individual  ceremony  consisted  simply  of  going  to  the  bank  of  some  clear 
stream,  in  the  case  of  the  Otters  for  instance,  and  after  smoking  sacred 
tobacco,  casting  the  pulverized  tobacco  into  the  water  at  intervals  during  a 
thanksgiving  and  praise  chant.  Then  will  the  otters  know  that  their  human 
brothers  are  not  ungrateful  for  the  fortune  they  are  receiving. 

There  were  four  societies,  having  as  their  genii  the  spirits  of  the  bear,  the 
birds  (eagle),  the  buffalo  and  the  otter,  respectively,  and  taking  their  names 
from  their  guardian  animal  (Secret  Medicine  Societies  of  the  Seneca, 
P-  113). 

-  This  was  done  at  the  suggestion  of  Cornplantcr  who  is  accused  of  cn~ 
dcavoring  to  upset  the  plans  and  prophecies  of  Handsome  Lake  in  many 
sly  ways. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  .  4I 

are  amusements  devised  in  the  heaven  world,  the  Osto'wago'vva,^ 
Gone'owo"',  Ado"'we°  and  Ganawe"'go\va.'  " 
So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   31  ■  "i      :     ?~^; 

"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  The  Creator  has  sanctioned  four  dances  for  producing  a  joy- 
ful spirit  and  he  has  placed  them  in  the  keeping  of  Honon'diont- 
who  have  authority  over  them.  The  Creator  has  ordered  that  on 
certain  times  and  occasions  there  should  be  thanksgiving  ceremonies. 
At  such  times  all  must  thank  the  Creator  that  they  live.  After  that, 
let  the  chiefs  thank  him  for  the  ground  and  the  things  on  the 
ground  and  then  upward  to  the  sky  and  the  heaven-world 
where  he  is.  Let  the  children  and  old  folk  come  and  give 
thanks.  Let  the  old  women  who  can  scarcely  walk  come. 
They  may  lean  against  the  middle  benches  and  after  listen- 
ing to  three  or  four  songs  must  say,  "  I  thank  the  Great  Ruler  that 
I  have  seen  this  day."  Then  will  the  Creator  call  them  right  be- 
fore him. 

"  '  It  seems  that  you  have  never  known  that  when  Osto'wago'wa 
was  being  celebrated  that  one  of  the  four  beings  was  in  the  midst 
of  it,  but  it  is  so.  Now  when  the  time  for  dancing  comes  you  must 
wash  your  faces  and  comb  your  hair,  paint  your  face  with  red  spots 
on  either  cheek,  and  with  a  thankful  heart  go  to  the  ceremony.  This 
preparation  will  be  sufficient,  therefore,  do  not  let  your  style  of 
dress  hold  you  back. 

"  '  You  have  not  previously  been  aware  that  w'hen  a  Godi'ont  is 
appointed  that  you  have  not  appointed  her.  No,  for  the  Great 
Ruler  has  chosen  her.  A  road  leads  from  the  feet  of  every  godi'ont 
and  hodi'ont  toward  heaven.  Truly  this  is  so  only  of  they  who  do 
right  before  the  Creator.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message  for  your  people. 

"  '  He   who   created   us   appointed   that   there   should   be   chiefs, 
(hodi'ion'),  and  that  they  should  do  good  for  the  people.'" 
So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

1  The  Great  Feather  dance,  the  Harvest  dance,  tlie  Sacred  Song  and  the 
Peach  Stone  game. 

^  Honoii'diont,  overseers  or  keepers  of  ceremonies,  more  often  women 
than  men.  The  word  means  Tliey  are  mountains.  (Hodi'ont  is  mas.  sing.; 
Godi'ont,  fern.  sing.). 



"  '  So  now  another. 

"  '  Tell  your  relations  this.     The  Creator  has  sanctioned  a  feast 
to  a  medicine  animal  on  a  great  day.'  '' 
So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  Now  the  messengers  said  that  this  thing  was  beyond  the  con- 
trol of  Indians. 

"  'At  some  future  day  the  wild  animals  will  become  extinct.  Now 
when  that  day  comes  the  people  will  raise  cattle  and  swine  for  feast 
food  at  the  thanksgivings.'  "  ^ 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  You  have  been  ignorant  of  this  thing. 

"  '  When  the  Honondi'ont  go  about  to  notify  the  community  of  a 
meeting  for  the  celebration  of  Osto'wago'wa,  or  for  hearing  the 
Great  Ruler's  message,  the  evil  spirit  at  the  same  time  appoints  and 
sends  another  man,  an  invisible  one,  in  his  tracks  saying,  "  Do  not 
go.  It  is  of  no  use,  no  benefit  comes  to  you ;  rather  do  your  own 
work  at  home  and  stay  away."  Now  it  is  the  messenger  of  the  evil 
spirit  that  argues  thus.  Now  know  you  that  the  evil  spirit  will 
hinder  you  in  all  good  things  but  you  can  outwit  him  by  doing  the 
things  that  he  does  not  wish  you  to  do.  (jO  then  to  the  meetings. 
Then  will  the  evil  messenger  follow  you  to  the  Long  House  and 
when  from  the  outside  you  have  heard  the  songs  he  will  say  that 
such  is  sufficient  and  that  you  may  now  return.  Do  not  heed  him 
but  enter  and  take  your  seat.  Then  will  he  argue  again  saying 
that  it  is  sufficient  to  listen  and  not  take  a  part  because  you  would 
not  appear  well  in  shabby  clothing.  Heed  him  not.  Now  this 
spirit  speaks  to  your  minds  and  his  face  is  between  you  all.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 


Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 
This  will  happen. 
"  '  We  have  told  you  to  watch. 

^  Pork  is  now  the  principal  ceremonial  food. 


"  '  The  HononMiont  will  go  out  in  fours  for  game  for  the  feasts. 

"  '  You  may  think  that  they  are  fulfilling  their  duty  to  Gai'wiio'. 

"  '  The  animals  that  fall  must  be  thirty. 

"  '  But  this  will  happen  when  Gai'wiio'  is  new.  The  Honon'diont 
will  kill  twenty-nine  and  the  twenty-ninth  will  be  a  cub  bear.  So 
there  will  not  be  thirty. 

"  '  So  this  will  be  done  when  Gai'wiio'  is  new.  It  will  be  done  at 
Adekwe'o"ge,  the  Green  Corn  thanksgiving  ceremony.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  Now  this  is  a  thing  to  happen. 

"  '  Hereafter  we  shall  have  a  new  species  of  deer.^  The  Creator 
will  create  somewhere  a  pair,  male  and  female.  The  male  deer  will 
be  spotted  with  white  and  the  female  striped  with  white  over  her 
back.    This  will  be  done  and  we  say  it. 

"  '  Now  moreover  the  messengers  command  that  these  animals 
shall  never  be  killed.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    38 

"  '  Now  another  message  for  your  people. 

"  '  If  all  the  world  would  repent  the  earth  would  become  as  new 
again.  Because  of  sin  the  under-world-  is  crumbling  with  decay. 
The  world  is  full  of  sin.    Truly,  this  is  so.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

1  These  deer  are  the  sacred  creations  of  the  Great  Ruler  and  as  such  no 
"pale  invader"  is  permitted  to  see  them,  though  a  few  of  the  faithful  have 
at  certain  seasons  seen  them  in  the  darkness  fleeing  from  discovery.  Corn- 
planter  says  these  deer  were  killed  by  a  jealous  rival  of  the  prophet  while 
he  yet  lived,   so  defying  the  new  command. 

-The  under-world  was  tlionght  to  be  a  dark  region  beneath  the  surface 
of  the  earth  where  were  confmcd  the  creations  of  the  evil-minded  spirit.  It 
was  a  vast  cave  full  of  winding  chambers,  dark  turbid  rivers,  bottomless 
sloughs,  hot  springs  and  fetid  odors,  rapacious  beasts,  venomous  serpents, 
poisonous  insects  and  noxious  weeds.  The  door  of  the  under-world  was 
guarded  by  the  under-earth  elves  who  had  great  difficulty  in  preventing  the 
white  Iniffaloes  from  escaping.  Frequently  they  did  and  then  began  a  great 
pursuit  to  kill  or  bring  back  the  white  bufifaloes.  At  such  a  time  the  elves 
would  tell  the  sun  of  the  calamity  and  he  would  paint  his  face  red  as  a  sign 
to  all  the  elves  the  world  over  that  the  chase  was  on.  See  Legend,  Origin  of 
Death  Dance. 


SECTION    39 

"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  We,  the  messengers  of  the  Creator,  are  of  the  opinion  that 
the  world  will  continue  for  three  generations  longer  (or  three  hun- 
dred years). ^    Then  will  Gai'wiio'  be  fulfilled.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  'The  religious  leaders  and  the  chiefs  must  enforce  obedience  to 
the  teachings  of  (jai'wiio'.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    41 

"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  This  thing  will  happen  when  it  is  new. 

"  '  Truly  men  will  repent  and  reform  but  it  will  happen  that 
three  certain  ones  will  neither  confess  nor  reform.  Nothing  will 
induce  them  to  confess. 

"  '  There  are  grades  of  sin:-  the  sins  of  Hasan'owan'e',  the  sins 
of  Honon'diont  and  the  sins  of  the  ordinary  people. 

"  '  Now  when  you  are  preaching  repentance,  Gaiant'waka  will 
say  that  these  men  when  they  pass  from  this  world  are  most  vile. 
He  will  say,  "  Let  us  cast  them  into  the  water  for  they  are  not 
worthy  to  be  dressed  for  the  grave.  The  Creator  will  not  receive 
them."    Now  no  one  will  object  to  what  Gaiant'waka  says.'  " 

Now  this  thing  did  happen  as  predicted  and  when  the  messen- 
ger arose  the  first  thing  that  he  did  was  to  spread  the  news  and  give 
the  command  that  it  must  not  be  done. 

"  Now  they  said,  '  The  Creator  will  not  give  up  hope  of  them 
until  they  pass  from  the  earth.  It  is  only  then  that  they  can  lose 
their  souls  if  they  have  not  repented.  So  the  Creator  always  hopes 
for  repentance.'  "  ^ 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

^  Handsome  Lake  taught  that  the  world  would  end  in  the  year  2100. 
2  The  higher  the  position  the  greater  the  sin,  is  the  prophet's  rule. 
^  See  p.  61,  Idea  of  soul. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  45 

"  '  Chiefs  and  high  officers  have  spoken  derisively  of  each  other 
and  quarreled.^     What  they  have  done  must  not  be  done  again.'  " 
So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    43 

"  'Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  Good  food  is  turned  into  evil  drink.  Now  some  have  said  that 
there  is  no  harm  in  partaking  of  fermented  liquids. 

Then  let  this  plan  be  followed  :  let  men  gather  in  two  parties, 
one  having  a  feast  of  food,  apples  and  corn,  and  the  other  have 
cider  and  whiskey.  Let  the  parties  be  equally  divided  and  matched 
and  let  them  commence  their  feasting  at  the  same  time.  When  the 
feast  is  finished  you  will  see  those  who  drank  the  fermented  juices 
murder  one  of  their  own  party  but  not  so  with  those  who  ate  food 
only.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message  for  your  people. 

"  '  You  have  had  the  constant  fear  that  the  white  race  would 
exterminate  you.-  The  Creator  will  care  for  his  Ongwe'o"we  (real 
people).'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said,     luiiaiehuk. 


"  ■  Now  another  message  for  your  people. 

"  '  Some  of  your  relatives  and  descendants  will  say,  "  We  lack 
an  understanding  of  this  religion."  and  this  will  be  the  crv  of  the 

1  Jealousy  was  the  principal  cause  of  the  dissension  that  led  to  the  decay 
of  the  League  of  the  Iroquois. 

2  The  Iroquois  saw  that  the  white  race  had  encircled  them  and  were  draw- 
ing the  lines  ever  tighter.  They  saw  that  they  were  in  a  position  of  great 
disadvantage,  living  as  they  did  in  the  midst  of  a  people  against  whom  they 
had  fought  not  only  in  their  own  wars  hut  also  as  allies  of  the  British. 
They  saw  how  all  other  native  trihes  had  been  swept  away  with  the  advance 
of  the  invading  race  and  thus  no  wonder  they  feared.  Yet  totlay  (1912) 
they  still  exist  unabsorbed  and  as  a  distinct  people  in  the  midst  of  the 
civilization  of  the  Empire  State  under  their  own  tribal  laws  and  recognized 
nominally  as  nations.  The  story  of  how  they  have  preserved  themselves 
through  three  centuries  of  contact  with  an  invading  race  that  had  little  love 
for  them  and  whose  policy  like  their  own  in  ancient  times,  is  to  absorb  or 
exterminate,  to  accomplish  a  thing  that  no  other  aboriginal  race  has  done, 
is  well  worth  a  place  in  history  as  one  of  its  marvels.  "  Truly  the  Creator 
has  cared   for  his  red  children!" 


people.  But  even  we,  the  servants  of  the  Creator,  do  not  under- 
stand all  things.  Now  some  when  they  are  turned  to  the  right 
way  will  sav,  ""  I  will  continue  so  for  all  of  my  clays,"  hut  this  will 
not  be  so  for  they  surely  will  fall  short  in  some  things.  This  is 
why  even  we  can  not  understand  all  things.'  " 
So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  At  the  time  of  this  prophecy  I  was  in  the  Cold  Spring  village. 
It  occurred  at  this  time.     The  prophecy  was  then  new. 

"  At  that  time  a  woman  and  her  daughter  administered  a  witch- 
powder'  to  a  man  and  he  lost  his  mind.  He  wandered  off  alone 
and  died  and  thus  a  great  crime  was  committed. 

"  Now  at  that  time  it  was  said  among  the  head  men,  "  We  will 
punish  the  women.'  So  it  was  the  plan  that  each  chief  give  the 
women  one  lash. 

'■  Now  1,  Ganiodai'io'  heard  the  resolution  of  the  chiefs  and  was 
of  the  opinion  that  the  women  would  easily  survive  such  punish- 
ment, so,  also,  the  chiefs  believed  it. 

"  Now  all  this  happened  when  the  head  men  sat  in  council,  the 
four  messengers  l)eing  present. 

"  Now  this  thing  must  never  happen  again.  Such  councils  never 
accomplish  good.  It  is  natural  that  foolish  women  should  have 
done  what  these  did. 

"  Now  at  the  time  of  the  lashing  it  was  in  my  mind  that  they 
would  surely  live. 

"  So  this  must  never  ha])pen  again  because  the  Creator  has  not 
[)rivileged  men  to  jjunish  each  other."     Eniaiehuk.     [See  plate  12.] 


"  So  now  another  story. 
It   happened   that   at   a   certain   time  a   certain   person  did   not 
honor  Gai'wiio'.     At   a  gathering  where  Gai'wiio'   was  being  told 
this  was  done.     It  was  at  Cold  Spring  village. 

"A  man  was  standing  in  the  doorway  showing  disrespect  to  the 
proceedings  within.  The  prophet  was  speaking  and  as  he  said  in 
closing  '  It  is  finished,'  the  man  in  the  doorway  daini'Madi.  Now 
that  was  the  last.     The  man  did  not  go  ho:re  to  his  dwelling  and 

1  Witch-powders  were  used  for  various  purposes  but  generally  as  poisons 
or  love  charms.  Their  use  is  condemned  in  section  3  and  the  punishment 
of  those  who  use  them  in  section   104. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  47 

tlie  next  day  it  was  rumored  that  he  was  missing.  A  search  was 
made  and  on  the  other  side  of  the  Allegany  in  a  swamp  two  days 
later  the  man  was  found.  He  was  sitting  above  it.  He  had  broken 
branches  and  arranged  them  in  the  form  of  a  nest  upon  which  he 
sat  devouring  snakes.  He  was  not  in  his  right  mind.  They  took 
him  from  his  nest   (ho'no"'gwae")   and  soon  he  died."     Eniaichuk. 

SECTION    48 

"  Now  another  story. 

1  "  Now  it  was  that  when  the  people  reviled  me,  the  proclaimer 
of  the  prophecy,  the  impression  came  to  me  that  it  would  be  well 
to  depart  and  go  to  Tonawanda.  In  that  place  I  had  relatives  and 
friends  and  thought  that  my  bones  might  find  a  resting  place  there. 
Thus  I  thought  through  the  day. 

"  Then  the  messengers  came  to  me  and  said  '  We  understand 
your  thoughts.  We  will  visit  you  more  frequently  and  converse 
with  you.  Wherever  you  go  take  care  not  to  be  alone.  Be  cautious 
and  move  secretly.' 

"  Then  the  messengers  told  me  that  my  life  journey  would  be  in 
three  stages  and  when  I  entered  the  third  I  would  enter  into  the 
eternity  of  the  New  World,^  the  land  of  our  Creator.  So  they 
said."     Eniaiehuk. 

2  "  The  day  was  bright  when  I  went  into  the  planted  field  and 
alone  I  wandered  in  the  planted  field  and  it  was  the  time  of  the 
second  hoeing.  Suddenly  a  damsel"  appeared  and  threw  her  arms 
about  my  neck  and  as  she  clasped  me  she  spoke  saying,  '  When  you 
leave  this  earth  for  the  new  world  above,  it  is  our  wish  to  follow 
you.'  I  looked  for  the  damsel  but  saw  only  the  long  leaves  of  corn 
twining  round  my  shoulders.  And  then  I  understood  that  it  was  the 
spirit  of  the  corn  who  had  spoken,  she  the  sustainer  of  life.  So  I 
replied,  '  O  spirit  of  the  corn,  follow  not  me  but  abide  still  upon  the 
earth  and  be  strong  and  be  faithful  to  your  purpose.  Ever  endure 
and  do  not  fail  the  children  of  women.  It  is  not  time  for  you  to 
follow  for  Gai'wiio'  is  only  in  its  beginning.'  "      Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

1  The  heaven  described  by  Ganiodai'io'  was  called  the  New  World  because 
it  had  not  been  previously  known.  The  generations  before  had  not  gone 
there,  not  having  known  the  will  of  the  Creator  as  revealed  by  the  prophet. 

2  See  plate  13,  the  Spirit  of  the  Corn. 


"  '  There  is  a  dispute  in  the  heaven-world  between  two  parties. 
It  is  a  controversy  about  you,  the  children  of  earth.  Two  great 
beings  are  disputing — one  is  the  Great  Ruler,  the  Creator,  and 
the  other  is  the  evil-minded  spirit. 

"  '  You  who  are  on  earth  do  not  know  the  things  of  heaven. 

"  '  Now  the  evil  one  said,  "  I  am  the  ruler  of  the  earth  because 
when  I  command  I  speak  but  once  and  man  obeys." 

'■  '  Then  answered  the  Great  Ruler,  "  The  earth  is  mine  for  I 
have  created  it  and  you  have  helped  me  in  no  part." 

"  '  Now  the  evil  one  answered,  "  I  do  not  acknowledge  that  you 
have  created  the  earth  and  that  I  helped  in  no  part,  but  I  say 
that  when  I  say  to  men,  '  ()l)ey  me,"  they  straightway  obey,  but 
they  do  not  hear  your  voice." 

"  ■  Then  the  Great  Ruler  replied,  "  Truly  the  children  are  my  own 
for  they  have  never  done  evil." 

"  '  And  the  evil  one  answering  said,  "  Nay,  the  children  are  mine 
for  when  I  bid  one  saying.  '  Pick  up  that  stick  and  strike  your 
fellow,'  they  obey  me  quickly.     Aye.  the  children  are  mine." 

"  '  Then  was  the  Great  Ruler  very  sad  and  he  said,  "  Once  more 
will  I  send  my  messengers  and  tell  them  my  heart  and  they  will  tell 
my  people  and  thus  I  will  redeem  my  own." 

"  '  Then  the  evil  one  replied,  "  Even  so  it  will  not  be  long  before 
men  transgress  your  commands.  I  can  destroy  it  with  a  word  for 
they  will  do  my  bidding.  Verily  I  delight  in  the  name  Hamsse'ono. 
It  is  very  true  that  they  who  love  my  name,  though  they  be  on  the 
other  side  of  the  earth,  will  find  me  at  their  backs  the  moment 
they  pronounce  my  name." 

"  '  Now  at  that  time  the  Great  Ruler  spoke  to  the  four  messen- 
gers saying,  "  Go  tell  mankind  that  at  present  they  must  not  call 
me  Hawi'n'io',  the  Great  Ruler,  until  a  later  time,  for  the  Evil  One 
calls  himself  the  Ruler  of  Mankind.  So  now  whosoever  is  turned 
into  my  way  must  say  when  lie  calls  ui)on  my  name,  Hodianok'doo" 
Hed'iohe',  our  Creator.  So  also  whosoever  speaks  the  name  of 
the  evil  one  must  say,  Segoewa'tha,  The  Tormentor.  Then  will  the 
evil  one  know  that  you  have  discovered  who  he  is,  for  it  is  he  who 
will  punish  the  wicked  when  they  depart  from  this  world.'  "^ 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

^  A  typical  example  of  Iroquois  philosophy.  The  Iroquois  were  fond  of 
devising  stories  of  this  character  and  many  of  them  reveal  the  subtle  reason- 
ing powers  of  the  Indian  in  a  strikinj?  manner. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  49 

SECTION    50 

"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

1  "  '  Now  we  are  of  the  mind  that  the  cold  of  winter  will  take 
life  away.  Many  will  be  taken  away  because  of  the  changing  cold. 
Moreover  some  will  freeze  because  they  are  filled  with  strong 
drink.  Then  again  when  the  earth  grows  warm  and  the  warm 
changes  come,  many  will  perish  because  of  strong  drink.  Now  the 
Creator  never  intended  that  variations  of  weather  and  season,  warm 
and  cold,  should  cause  death.'  " 

2  "  '  The  Creator  made  the  waters  of  the  earth,  the  rivers  and 
lakes.  These  too  will  cause  death  and  some  filled  with  strong 
drink  will  be  swallow^ed  up  by  the  waters.'  " 

3  "  'And  now  more.  The  Creator  made  fire  and  this  will  also 
cause  death  and  some  filled  with  strong  drink  will  be  destroyed  by 
the  flames.'  " 

" '  Verily    he    has    said    and    ordained    that    they    who    disobey 
Gai'wiio'  should  fall  into  hardships.'  "' 
So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 
'  "  '  The  messengers  have  given  the  promise  to  the  prophet  that  he 
will  be  able  to  judge  diseases  and  prescribe  remedies.^  So  also  he 
will  be  able  to  see  far  down  into  the  earth  as  far  as  runs  the  elm's 
root.  Then  if  any  trouble  comes  and  anyone  asks  the  help  of  the 
prophet,  he  must  give  it  freely,  but  they  who  ask  must  give  an 
offering  of  tobacco.  Now  there  will  be  some  in  your  care  who  will 
be  taken  from  your  hands  for  other  treatment.  No  wTong  will  be 
done  and  you  must  bear  no  ill  will.  It  is  said  that  the  events  of 
all  our  days  are  foreknown,  so  when  the  time  comes  for  you  to 
exercise  your  power  we  will  tell  you  and  then  you  may  judge  the 
earth  and  cure  diseases.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  *  Now  another  message  for  your  people. 

"  Now  when  my  relatives  heard  all  this  they  said,  '  This  man  must 
be  a  clairvoyant  (henne'yo"').'" 

1  See  p.   113,  medicine  men. 

2  Diviners  of  mysteries  have  always  been  prominent  characters  among  the 
Indians.     Their  office  was  to  tell  their  clients  the  proper  medicine   society 


"  The  news  spread  and  (iaiant'vvaka  came  as  a  messenger. ^  Now 
lie  came  to  Ganiodai'io'  and  said,  '  Why,  having  the  assurance  of 
powers,  do  you  not  commence  now.  Come  prophesy !  '  Now  he 
had  tobacco  for  an  offering.  Then  he  said,  '  My  daughter  is  very 

"  Now  the  diviner  of  mysteries  did  not  respond  to  his  entreaty 
and  so  Gaiant'waka  went  out  but  soon  came  running  back.  This 
second  time  he  had  the  same  request  and  plead  more  earnestly,  but 
without  avail. 

"  Then  it  was  said  that  he  would  not  respond  to  the  cry  of  a 
brother  and  had  no  hearing  for  the  voice  of  a  brother. 

"Again  Gaiant'waka  returned  and  urged  his  brother. 

■'  Now  the  people  said,  '  Have  we  not  something  to  say  to  you  as 
well  as  the  messengers  of  the  Creator?  ' 

"  Then  he  answered  and  said,  '  Truly  the  people  say  that  I  will 
not  reason.  Verily  I  am  true  to  my  words.  Now  I  can  do  nothing 
but  try  but  I  have  not  yet  the  permission  of  the  messengers.' 

"  Now  he  went  into  a  deep  sleep  and  when  he  awoke  he  told  his 
vision.  Now  he  said  that  O'gi'we'-  should  be  sung  for  the  sick 

"  Now  it  is  said  that  at  that  time  the  first  song  was  in  order  but 
every  part  of  the  song  was  silent. 

"  Now  a  rumor  spread  that  after  all  it  was  not  wrong  to  continue 
the  ceremonial  dances  once  forl)idden.  So  many  were  sick  because 
they  had  not  observed  the  commanded  method  of  closing  the 

This  was  so  when  Gai'wiio'  was  new.     Eniaiehuk. 

SPXTION    53 

Now  another  message. 

"  The  four  messengers  arose  from  a  sitting  of  the  prophecy. 

"  Now  he  said  that  certain  songs  and  parts  of  songs  are  not 
known  and  some  societies  are  new  and  their  powers  untried.     So 

that  would  be  most  efficacious  in  curing  the  sick,  to  discover  the  where- 
abouts of  lost  children  or  articles,  to  discover  what  witch  was  working  her 
spells,  and  to  tell  fortunes,  as  well  as  to  interpret  dreams. 

1  Cornplantcr  again  endeavored  to  get  his  brother  into  disfavor  with  the 
four  messengers  by  forcing  him  to  exercise  his  powers  prematurely.  For 
this  reason  the  followers  of  Handsome  Lake  to  this  day  regard  Corn- 
planter  as  a  malicious  character  who  ever  tried  to  upset  the  Gai'wiio'. 

2  The  death  chant,  a  ceremony  belonging  to  the  O'gi'weona'  or  Society  of 
Chanters.     See  the  legend  Origin  of  the  Death  Dance. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  5 1 

make  a  feast  and  throw  tobacco  instead  of  singing.  But  the  chiefs 
said  that  that  plan  should  be  laid  aside  and  notwithstanding,  the 
songs  should  be  sung  as  far  as  possible. 

Now  the  messengers  said  that  they  should  secure  provisions 
enough  for  the  feast  and  be  sure.  Some  have  planned  to  have 
strong  drink  used  at  the  feast  but  this  must  not  be  tolerated.  Only 
food  must  be  used.'"^ 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    54 

"  Now  I  will  relate  another. 

"  There  is  a  certain  ceremony  in  the  midwinter."  It  is  said  that 
it  is  most  important  to  uphold  the  customs  of  midwinter  and  that 
any  one  having  a  part  should  fulfil  it.  It  is  said  that  to  fulfil  the 
customs  they  must  go  about  the  neighborhood  holding  dances.  It 
is  said  that  the  Creator  has  sanctioned  certain  dances  for  thanks- 

Now  the  messengers  said  that  (ianio'dai'io'  must  sing^  early  in 
the  morning  on  three  mornings  and  give  the  cheer-cries  of  the 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    55 

"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  It  is  said  that  all  your  relatives  and  friends  must  be  told. 

"  '  It  is  said  that  when  these  rites  are  performed  one  person  is 
to  be  selected  to  ofi^er  thanks^  to  the  Creator.  Now  when  thanks 
are  rendered  begin  with  the  things  upon  the  ground  and  thank 
upward  to  the  things  in  the  new  world  above.  Afterward  any  one 
so  inclined  may  arise  and  thank  the  Creator  in  the  manner  he  thinks 
best.'  "' 

So  it  is  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

^  It  is  related  that  at  one  period  whiskey  had  so  far  debauched  the 
Indians  that  their  once  sacred  ceremonies,  like  those  of  the  early  Christians 
at  Corintli,  were  made  the  excuses  of  the  grossest  licentiousness  and  drunken 
revelry.     Whiskey  had  entirely  supplanted  the  feast   foods. 

-  See  the  Burning  of  the  White  Dog,  p.  85. 

3  This  song  is  still  sung  by  the  preacher  of  the  Gai'wiio'.  The  preacher 
stands  at  the  door  of  the  Long  House  on  three  successive  mornings  of  the 
new  year's  season  and  greets  the  sunrise  with  his  song.  It  is  said  to  be  a 
charm  against  high  winds  and  the  faithful  claim  that  Gao',  the  spirit  of 
the  wind,  holds  back  his  fury  when  the  song  floats  over  the  settlement. 

*  See  The  Goneowo  ceremony,  p.  95. 

^2  ■  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

SECTION    56 

"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  This  happened  when  Gai'wiio'  was  new.  It  was  the  time  when 
he  dwelt  at  Diono""sodege'.^ 

"A  father  and  son  appeared  in  Diono"''sodege'.  Now  the  name 
of  the  son  was  Gani'seon.  They  were  on  a  hunting  journey  and 
came  from  Gadages'kiio"-  with  a  horse  and  cart.  Now  they  tarried 
in  Diono°''sodege'  for  several  nights  before  again  taking  up  their 

"  It  was  during  the  hunting  season  that  the  news  spread  that 
some  one  had  returned  from  the  hunting  grounds  without  a  com- 
panion. It  was  the  young  man  who  had  returned.  So  they 
questioned  him  and  asked  where  his  father  was.  He  answered, 
'  My  father  is  lost.  I  went  about  searching  for  my  father  a  num- 
ber of  days.  I  walked  and  searched  and  signalled  with  gun  dis- 
charges hoping  to  find  him.  I  could  not  find  him  and  became  weary 
waiting  for  his  return.'     So  he  said." 

"  Now  Gaiant'waka  when  he  heard  this  said,  '  It  is  apparent  to 
me  that  the  young  man  has  spoken  the  untruth.'  So  then  they  all 
went  to  the  diviner  of  mysteries  and  Gaiant'waka  spoke  to  him 
saying,  '  It  is  my  opinion  that  the  boy  has  murdered  his  own 
father.'  And  the  prophet  answering  said,  '  They  have  not  yet  given 
me  the  power  to  see  things  but  this  will  I  do.  Bring  a  bullet,  a 
knife,  and  a  hatchet  that  the  boy  may  look  upon  these  things  when 
I  speak  and  perhaps  the  truth  will  come  {sec  plate  14).  One  of 
these  things  will  move  though  not  touched  and  he  shall  be  the 
witness."  So  the  head  men  did  as  bidden  and  placed  the  objects  as 
directed.  In  the  middle  of  the  floor  they  spread  a  blanket  and  put 
the  articles  upon  it.  Then  they  gathered  around  it  and  watched, 
and  as  they  watched  he  spoke  and  the  bullet  moved.  Thus  it 
happened.  Then  sj^oke  Ganio'dai'io'.  "  This  brings  the  confirmation 
of  the  rumor.  Truly  the  youth  has  murdered  his  father,  and 
furthermore  I  say  that  the  crime  was  committed  between  Ganos'^ 
and  Hanenk'gaek.*  On  the  south  side  of  a  mountain,  where  half 
way  up  an  elm  is  broken,  leaning  over  on  the  downhill  side  to  the 
west  lies  the  body  buried  in  the  leaves  of  the  top  branches.  He,  the 
father,  is  buried  in  the  leaves.'     So  he  said  when  he  spoke.     The 

^  Cornplanter  village. 

2  Cattaraugus  village,  the  principal  town  of  the  Cattaraugus  region. 

^  Franklin,  Pa. 

^  Oil  Citv,  Pa. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  53 

chiefs  and  head-men  appointed  a  delegation  to  see  if  all  he  had  said 
were  true.  So  the}'  went  as  they  had  been  told  and  found  the  body 
of  the  father  and  brought  it  ])ack  with  theni."     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    57 

"  '  Now  another  message  to  tell  your  people. 

"  '  You  may  ask  three  questions  concerning  three  privileges  when 
you  go  among  your  relatives  at  the  ceremony  of  Nisko'wukni^  and 
ask  what  one  is  fitted  for  then. 

"'Who  among  you  likes  best  to  call  upon  the  afflicted?  Who 
among  you  loves  to  commune  alone  in  the  forests?  Who  among 
you  is  most  anxious  concerning  religious  conditions?"" 

So  they  asked  him.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    58 

"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Now  this  matter  will  devolve  upon  you. 

"  '  The  people  will  assemble  in  council  and  ask.  "  Who  among 
us  is  able  to  say,  '  I  compel  you  to  assemble? 

"  '  Now  when  the  ([uestion  is  set  forth  each  person  must  make 
reply.    The  chiefs  must  demand  it.' 

"  Now  it  happened  that  he  fulfilled  the  requirements  and  all  the 
people  assembled  and  with  one  accord  acclaimed  that  Ganio'dai'io' 
should  lead  them  and  that  they  should  never  murmur. 

Now   that   the   people  had   done,   he   was  patient   to   learn   the 

"  The  council  adjourned  and  the  messengers  came  and  questioned 
him  saying,  '  How  did  you  understand  your  people  ?  ' 

"  He  answered,  '  The  majority  consented  that  I  should  lead 
them."  - 

"  Then  the  messengers  replied,  '  Trulv  the  greater  number  will 
follow  you.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


Now  another  message. 
"  '  It   is   this :     W'e,   the   messengers   of   our  Creator,   see   strong 
drink  used  during  the  season  when  corn  is  planted.     Now  let  those 

^  February,  the   moon  of  the  midwinter,   the  time  of  thanksgiving. 

"  Because  the  people  of  this  council  elected  tliat  Handsome  Lake  should 
have  authority  over  them  iie  is  ever  after  called  Sedwago'wane.  or  chief 
leader,  or  our  great  teacher. 


who  use  this  evil  drink  know  that  it  consumes  the  elements  of  life 
They  must  repent.'  '' 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  It  is  a  custom  for  thanksgiving  to  be  made  over  the  hills  of 
planted  corn.^  Let  the  head  one  of  the  family  make  an  invocation 
over  the  planted  hills  that  the  corn  may  continue  to  support  life. 
Now  this  will  be  a  right  thing  and  whosoever  asks  the  help  of  the 
Creator  will  receive  it.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  So  now  another. 

"  '  Now  it  is  understood  that  Dio'he''ko"  (the  corn,  bean  and 
squash  spirits),  have  a  secret  medicine,  o'sagan'da'  and  o'sdTs'dani. 
So  soak  your  seed  corn  in  these  tw.o  medicines  before  you  plant 
your  fields.     The  medicines  grow  on  the  flat  lands  near  streams.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    62 

"  *  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Now  there  are  some  who  have  boasted  that  they  could  drink 
all  the  strong  drink  in  the  world.  Now  we,  the  messengers,  say 
that  they  who  thus  idly  boast  will  never  live  to  accomplish  what 
they  boast.    White  men  will  ever  distil  the  evil  liquor.'  "- 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    63 

"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Tell  vour  friends  and  relatives  that  there  will  be  two  divisions 

1  The  ceremony  of  invoking  the  Creator  over  the  hills  of  corn  was  an  old 
one  and  like  many  other  old  customs  was  indorsed  by  the  prophet.  This 
custom  is  still  continued  among  some  of  the  Iroquois.  "  When  the  leaf  of 
the  dogwood  is  the  size  of  a  squirrel's  ear,  the  planting  season  has  come. 
Before  the  dawn  of  the  first  day  of  the  planting  a  virgin  girl  is  sent  to  the 
fields  where  she  scatters  a  few  grains  of  corn  to  the  earth  as  she  invokes 
the  assistance  of  the  spirit  of  the  corn   for  the  harvest." 

2  This  section  with  others  of  similar  import  brings  out  the  prophet's  intense 
dislike  of  idle  boasting. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  5^ 

of  miiul'   among  the  chiefs  and  head-men  and  among  the  people. 
Nevermore  will  your  race  be  united.'  " 
So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    64 

"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  Now  the  messengers  commanded  him  to  give  attention  and  he 
did.     Then  he  saw  a  great  assembly  and  the  assembly  was  singing: 

'  The   whole  earth  is   here  assembled, 
The  whole  world  may  come  to  us. 
We  are  ready.' 

'*  Then  said  the  messengers,  '  What  did  you  see  when  you  gave 
attention?  ' 

■'  He  answered,  '  I  saw  a  great  gathering  of  beings  and  the 
gatiiering  was  singing  and  the  words  of  the  song  were : 

'  The  whole  earth   is   here  assembled, 
The  whole  world  may  come  to  us. 
We  are  ready.' 

"  Then  said  the  messengers,  '  It  is  very  true.  The  beings  that 
you  saw  resemble  human  creatures.  It  is  true  that  they  are  sing- 
ing. Now  the  assembly  is  a  gathered  host  of  medicines  for  healing. 
Now  let  this  be  your  ceremony  when  you  wish  to  employ  the 
medicine  in  a  plant :  First  offer  tobacco.  Then  tell  the  plant  in 
gentle  words  what  you  desire  of  it  and  pluck  it  from  the  roots. 
It  is  said  in  the  upper  world  that  it  is  not  right  to  take  a  plant  for 
medicine  without  first  talking  to  it.  Let  not  one  ever  be  taken 
without  first  speaking.'  "' 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

^  Tiiis  seemingly  obscure  section  is  cleared  of  its  mystery  when  the 
preacher  explains  that  the  divisions  of  mind  refer  to  the  Gaiwios'tuk  or 
Christian  and  Ongwe'o"weka'  or  Indian  parties.  '"  Dewadia'ke'  gani'goi', 
broken   in   tivain,  tJic  nuity  of  purpose."  is  Chief  Cornplanter's  term. 

-The  ceremony  of  gathering  herbs.  When  a  Seneca  wishes  to  gather 
medicinal  herl)s,  he  goes  into  the  woods  wdiere  tiiey  grow  and  builds  a  small 
fire.  Wiien  there  is  a  quantity  of  glowing  embers  he  stands  before  it  and  as 
he  speaks  at  intervals  casts  a  pinch  of  tobacco  on  the  coals.  He  speaks  to 
the  spirits  of  the  medicines  telling  them  tliat  lie  desires  their  healing  virtues 
to  cure  his  people  of  their  afflictions. 

"  ^'ou  liave  said  tliat  you  are  ready  to  Ileal  the  earth."  chants  the  gatherer 
of  herl)s,  "  so  now  I  claim  you  for  my  medicine.  Give  me  of  your  healing 
virtues  to  purge  and  cleanse  and  cure.  I  will  not  destroy  you  but  plant  your 
seed  that  you  may  come  again  and  yield  fourfold  more.  Spirits  of  the  herbs, 
I  do  not  take  your  hves  without  purpose  but  to  make  you  the  agent  of  heal- 


SECTION    65 

"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  'It  has  been  a  custom  when  a  person  knows  of  a  heahng  herb 
to  ask  payment  for  giving  it  to  a  patient.  Now  we  say  that  this  is 
not  right.  It  is  not  right  to  demand  compensation  for  treating  the 
sick.  If  such  is  done  it  adds  greater  afflictions  to  the  sick  one. 
The  Creator  has  given  (Hfferent  people  knowledge  of  different 
things  and  it  is  the  Creator's  desire  that  men  should  e:rploy  their 
knowledge  to  help  one  another,  especially  those  who  are  afflicted. 
Now  moreover  the  person  hcli)ed  out  ought  only  to  give  tobacco  for 
an  offering."  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Now  it  is  said  that  your  fathers  of  old  never  reached  the  true 
lands  of  our  Creator  nor  did  they  ever  enter  the  house  of  the 
tormentor.  Ganos'ge'.^  It  is  said  that  in  some  matters  they  did  the 
will  of  the  Creator  and  that  in  others  they  did  not.  They  did  both 
good  and  bad  and  none  was  either  good  or  bad.  They  are  there- 
fore in  a  place  separate  and  unknown  to  us,  we  think,  enjoying 
themselves.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  'Now  it  is  said  that  your  people  must  change  certain  customs. 
It  has  been  the  custom  to  mourn  at  each  recurring  anniversary  of 
the  death  of  a   friend  or  relative.-     It  is  said  that  while  you  are 

ing,  for  we  are  very  .sick.  You  have  said  that  all  the  world  might  come  to 
you,  so  I  have  come.  I  give  you  thanks  for  your  lienetits  and  thank  the 
Creator  for  your  gift." 

When  the  last  puff  of  tohacco  smoke  had  arisen  the  gatlierer  of  herljs 
begins  his  work.  He  digs  the  plant  from  the  roots  and  breaking  off  the  seed 
stalks  drops  the  pods  into  the  hole  and  gently  covers  them  over  with  fertile 
leaf  mold. 

"  The  plant  will  come  again,"  he  says,  "  and  I  have  not  destroyed  life 
but  iielped  increase  it.  So  the  plant  is  willing  to  lend  me  of  its  virtue.'" 
Gahadoudi'li.    {Woodland  Border),  Seneca. 

1  The  evil  spirit  has  no  domain  except  his  house.  A  land  in  wliich  the 
condemned  spirit  might  roam  would  not  be  .so  terrible  but  eternal  confine- 
ment within  a  house  was  considered  a  horrible  fate  by  the  liberty-loving 

2  See  Funeral  and   Mourning  Customs,  p.   107. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  57 

upon  the  earth  you  do  not  realize  the  harm  that  this  works  upon 
the  departed. 

"  '  Now  moreover  it  is  said  that  when  an  infant  is  born  upon  the 
earth  with  which  the  parents  are  dissatisfied,  it  knows  and  says, 
"  I  will  return  to  my  home  above  the  earth.'  " 

"  Now  it  is  said  that  our  grief  adds  to  the  sorrows  of  the  dead. 
It  is  said  that  it  is  not  possible  to  grieve  always.  Ten  days  shall  be 
the  time  for  mourning  and  when  our  friends  depart  we  must  lay 
grief  aside.  When  you,  the  beings  of  earth,  lose  one  of  your  num- 
ber you  must  bury  your  grief  in  their  grave.  Some  will  die  today 
and  some  tomorrow  for  the  number  of  our  days  is  known  in  the 
sky-world.  So  hereafter  do  not  grieve.  Now  it  is  said  that  when 
the  ten  days  have  elapsed  to  prei)are  a  feast  and  the  soul  of  the  dead 
will  return  and  partake  of  it  with  you.  It  is  said  moreover  that 
you  can  journey  with  the  dead  only  as  far  as  the  grave.  It  is  said 
that  when  you  follow  a  body  to  the  grave  you  nmst  have  prepared 
for  that  journey  as  if  to  travel  afar.  Put  on  your  finest  clothing 
for  every  human  creature  is  on  its  journey  graveward.  It  is  said 
that  the  bodies  of  the  dead  have  intelligence  and  know  what 
transpires  about  them.^     It  is  true.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    68 

"  Now  it  is  said  that  when  Ganio'dai'io'  was  at  Tonawanda 
spreading  Gai'wiio'  it  happened  that  a  certain  man  named 
Segwai''do"gwi  said,  '  I  will  also  send  a  message  to  the  four 
messengers  and  ask  whether  I  am  right  in  my  belief  in  repentance 
and  right  doing.'  So  he  sent  his  message  upward  in  tobacco 

Now  when  the  messengers  arose  from  a  council  with  Ganio'dai'io' 
he  reported  what  they  had  told  him.  "  It  is  a  hard  matter  for  he, 
the  questioner,  is  two-minded."     So  he  said. 

Then  Segwai''do"gwi  said,  "Now  this  will  I  do :  I  will  give  a 
string  of  wampum,  ot'go'a,  to  the  chiefs  for  a  proof  of  my 
repentance,  for  though  I  have  been  thinking,  yet  I  can  not  discover 
that  I  am  two-minded.'' 

Now  when  Gai'wiiostuk  (the  Christian  religion)  came  this  man 
was  the  first  to  accept  its  teaching.  When  the  chiefs  heard  of  it 
they  went  to  him  and  otTered  to  return  his  wampum. 

Then  said  the  man,  "  I  \x\\\  not  turn  back  because  it  is  for  the 
good  of  all  that  I  have  this  religion." 

1  See,  The  death  feast,  p.   no. 


Now   all   the   chiefs   and   head-men   could   not   persuade   him   to 
return  to  the  right  way. 
So  it  is  said.      Eniaiehuk. 


"  Now  another  message. 

"  Now  it  is  said  that  you  must  relate  what  the  messengers  say 
about  the  coming  end  of  the  earth.  Relate  how  all  those  who  re- 
fuse to  believe  in  Gai'wiio'  will  suffer  hardships.^  Now  when  the 
earth  is  al:)out  to  end  the  chiefs  and  head-men  will  disagree  and  that 
will  be  a  sign.  So  also,  the  Honon'doint  will  disagree.  Then  will 
the  relations  know  the  truth." 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  Now  another  message. 

"  Now  we  say  that  you  must  tell  your  friends  and  relatives  that 
there  will  be  a  time  when  all  the  earth  will  withhold  its  sustaining 
foods.  Then  will  come  the  end  of  the  world  and  those  who  refuse 
to  believe  in  Gai'wiio'  will  suffer  great  hardships." 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  Now  another  message. 

"  Now  we  think  that  a  time  will  come  wdien  a  great  plague  will 
kill  many  people  and  no  one  will  know  its  cause.  Then  will  you 
know  that  the  end  is  near  and  those  who  do  not  believe  will  suffer 
great  hardships." 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  Now  another  message. 

"  Now  we  think  that  a  time  will  come  when  a  woman  will  be  seen 
performing  her  witch  spells  in  the  daylight.  Then  will  you  know 
that  the  end  is  near.  She  will  run  through  the  neighborhood  boast- 
ing how  many  she  has  slain  by  her  sorcery.  Then  will  you  see  how 
she  who  refused  to  believe  in  (jai'wiio'  will  suffer  punishment." 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  Now  another  message. 

"  In  that  time  you  will  hear  many  rumors  of  men  who  say,  '  I 
have  spoken  with  the  Creator.'     So  also  will  you  see  many  wonders 

1  See  Introduction,  p.  26. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  59 

but  they  will  not  endure  for  they  will  be  the  work  of  the  evil 

"  X'erily  we  say  that  there  will  be  none  other  than  you  who  will 
receive  a  message  from  the  Creator  through  us.  This  truth  will  be 
proclaimed  when  the  end  comes." 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    74 

"  Now  another  message. 

"  In  that  time  every  poisonous  creature  will  appear.  These 
creatures  the  Creator  has  imprisoned  in  the  underworld  and  they 
are  the  creations  of  the  evil-minded  spirit.  Now  it  is  our  opinion 
that  when  they  are  released  many  people  will  be  captured  and 
poisoned  by  them.  Men  will  see  these  hardships  when  they  fail  to 
believe  in  Gai'wiio'." 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    75 

"  Now  another  message. 

"  Now  there  will  be  some  who  will  enter  into  a  sleep.  When  they 
lie  down  they  will  be  in  health  and  as  they  sleep  the  Creator  will 
withdraw  their  lives  for  they  are  true.  To  the  faithful  this  will 
happen."  ^ 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    76 

"  Now  another  message. 

"  Now  we  think  that  the  Creator  will  stop  the  earth  and  heavens. 
All  the  powers  of  nature  will  he  suspend.  Now  they  will  see  this 
who  refuse  to  believe  in  Gai'wiio'." 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    ']'] 

"  Now  another  message. 

"  Now  we  think  that  when  the  end  comes  the  earth  will  be  de- 
stroyed by  fire  and  not  one  upon  it  will  escape  for  all  the  earth  will 
be  enveloped  in  flames  and  all  those  who  refuse  to  believe  in 
Gai'wiio'  will  be  in  it." 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

1  Because   Handsome   Lake   did   not   die   in   this   manner   some   of   his   half 
believing  followers  at  Onondaga  repudiated  his  teaching. 


Recitation  of  the  third  day 

SECTION    78 

"  Now  another  message.    Tell  it  to  those  at  Tonawanda. 

"  Now  they  said  to  him,  '  Watch  a  certain  place.'  So  he  did  and 
he  saw  a  certain  person  holding  meat  in  his  hands.  The  man  was 
rejoicing  and  was  well  clothed  and  fed  and  his  name  was 
Ta'donda'ieha",  and  he  recognized  him." 

"  Then  said  they  to  him.  '  How  is  it?  " 

"  He  answered,  '  I  recognized  Ta'donda'ieha'  and  he  held  meat  in 
his  hands.'     So  answered  he  who  talked  religiously." 

"  Then  the  messengers  answered,  '  Truly  you  saw  a  man  with 
meat  enjoying  himself.  He  was  joyous  because  he  was  a  pros- 
perous and  successful  hunter  and  gave  game  as  presents  to  his 
neighbors.  So  his  neighbors  were  grateful  and  thanked  him.  Now 
the  man  you  saw  has  departed  from  the  earth.  In  his  earth-life  he 
cleansed  himself  each  day,  visited  and  enjoyed  himself  in  his  best 
clothing.  He  was  ever  good  to  his  fellow-beings  and  so  he  is 
blessed  and  will  receive  the  reward  reserved  for  him  by  his 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaichuk. 


"  Now  another  message. 

"  This  will  happen. 

"  You  will  sing  three  times  and  the  third  time  you  sing  you  will 
step  into  oya'dedion'diade",  the  other  world. ^  That  you  go  there 
will  be  the  earnest  wish  of  all  who  have  heard  your  message." 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    80 

"  Now  another  message. 
Every  person  has  a  song  to  sing  when  the  time  comes  to  leave 
the   earth.      When   a   person   is   departing   he   must   sing  that   song 

1  It  was  customary  for  the  friends  and  relatives  to  address  tlie  body  of 
the  dead  and  give  expression  to  one's  desires,  etc.  The  soul  when  it  reached 
the  heaven-world  would  then  tell  the  Great  Ruler  who  would  attend  to  the 
wishes  expressed. 



THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  "  6l 

and  continue   to   sing  on   liis   journey   to   tlie   otlier   world.'      They 
will  do  this  who  have  repented  and  who  helieve  in  Gai'wiio'." 
So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 


"  Now  another  message. 

"  Now  the  messengers  said.  '  Look  you  l)ack  in  a  vision  to  Corn- 
planter  village  and  the  place  where  the  creek  emjjties  into  the  river.' 
So  he  looked  and  saw  a  large  numher  of  canoes  gathered  there. 
Many  people  were  assembled  and  there  were  barrels  of  strong 
drink  at  the  place.  The  people  were  making  much  noise.  Now 
moreover  there  was  a  man  there,  hojjping  from  canoe  to  canoe  and 
singing  Dji'haya,  the  song  of  the  evil-minded  s])irit.  Now  the 
words  that  he  sang  were  these  : 

'  Mr>re  liappy  am   I   in   my  own   liousc, 
Far  more  happy  there  than  here.' 

"Yet  the  man  seemed  to  be  greatly  enjoying  himself. 

"  Then  said  the  messengers,  '  You  have  been  observing,  now 
what  did  you  see  ? ' 

He  answered,  '  I  saw  a  man  hopping  from  canoe  to  canoe  singing 
the  song  of  the  evil-minded  one.  He  said  that  his  house  was  more 
happy  a  place  than  that  where  he  was.  The  ])eople  about  I  should 
judge  were  tilled  with  strong  drink.'  So  he  said  in  answer  to  the 

1  Ideas  of  the  soul.  The  following  ideas  of  the  liuman  soul  were  anciently 
held  by  the  Iroquois  and  their  influence  on  tlie  teachings  of  Handsome 
Lake's  teachings  will  he  noted   upon   reading  the  Gai'wiio': 

Every  soul  has  a  patli  to  its  (k^stiny  after  death. 

Every  soul   retains  its  personal  identity  whatever  form  it   may  inhaliit. 

Soul  differs  from  life. 

When  the  soul  leaves  the  body  life  does  not  necessarily. 

When  life  leaves  the  liody  the  soul  generally  does,  though  not  always 
unmediately  hut  may  linger  for  ten  days. 

The  soul  may  pass  from  a  living  body  and  enter  any  object  or  go  to  any 
place  to  acquire  wisdom  and  returning  reveal  it  to  the  person  in  dreams  or 

Should  a  jierson  refuse  persistently  to  heed  these  warning  visions  the  snul 
is  liable  to  desert  him,  leaving  the  person  simply  a  creature  without  power 
to  resist  or  understand  the  influence  of  the  various  spirits  good  or  bad. 

Thinking  that  by  some  oversight  or  evil  doing  that  he  may  lose  his  soul 
the  Indian  often  ofifers  sacrifice  to  his  evil  spirit.  This  is  to  satisfy  his  evil 
spirit  with  other  things  than  wrong  doing  and  thereby  not  offend  his  good 


'•  Then  answered  the  messengers,  '  What  you  say  is  true.  The 
man  was  the  punisher  and  his  dehght  is  to  see  people  filled  with 
strong  drink.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    82 

"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  '  Now  it  is  the  time  for  our  departure.  We  shall  now  go  on  a 
journev  and  then  you  shall  see  the  coming  of  the  fourth  messenger, 
the  journey  of  our  friends  and  the  works  of  the  living  of  earth. 
More,  you  will  see  the  house  of  the  punisher  and  the  lands  of  our 
Creator."  "'     . 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  '  Now  another  message. 

"  Suddenlv  as  they  looked,  a  road  slowly  descended  from  the 
south  sky'  and  came  to  where  they  were  standing.  Now  thereon 
he  saw  the  four  tracks  of  the  human  race  going  in  one  direction. 
The  footprints  were  all  of  different  sizes  from  small  to  great.  Now 
moreover  a  more  brilliant  light  than  the  light  of  earth  appeared." 

vSo  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    84 

"  '  Now  they  said  unto  him.  '  W'e  will  tarry  here  a  while  in  order 
that  you  may  see.' 

"  Now  as  he  watched  and  believed,  he  saw  a  large  woman  sitting 
there.  Now  the  woman  was  grasping  frantically  at  all  things  within 
her  reach,  and  it  seemed  that  she  could  not  stand  because  of  her 
great  size.    That  was  what  he  saw. 

"  Then  they  said  to  him,  '  What  did  you  see?  ' 

"  He  answered,  '  It  is  hard  to  say.  I  saw  a  woman  sitting  and 
she  was  large  of  size  and  snatching  at  everything  about  her.  I  am 
of  the  opinion  that  she  can  not  rise.'  So  he  answered  when  he 

"  Then  the  messengers  answered.  '  It  is  true.  That  which  you 
saw  was  the  evil  of  stinginess.     She  can  not  stand  and  thus  she  will 

'  The  great  sky-road  of  the  Gai'wiio'  is  the  milky  way.  The  souls  of  the 
dead  are  supposed  to  journey  over  the  broad  band  and  divide  at  the  forks. 
The  multitude  of  stars  are  thought  to  be  the  footprints  of  the  dead. 

THE    CODE    OP    HANDSOME    LAKE  63 

remain  forever.     Thus  it  will  be  with  those  who  forsake  religious 
teachings  and  think  more  of  the  things  of  earth  than  of  the  new 
world  above.     (Having  glutted  themselves  with  the  things  of  earth 
they  are  unable  to  stand  upon  the  heaven  road.)'  "  ^ 
So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    85 

"  Now  they  said,  '  We  shall  proceed."  Now  the  farther  they 
went  the  more  brilliant  the  light  became.  They  had  not  gone  far 
when  the  four  messengers  said,  '  Now  we  will  stop  again.  Look 
attentively  at  what  you  see.' 

"  So  he  looked  and  saw  three  groups  of  people  and  each  group 
was  of  a  different  size.  The  first  was  large,  the  second  small  and 
the  third  still  smaller. 

"  Then  the  messengers  asked  him,  '  What  do  you  see?' 

"  He  answered,  '  I  saw  three  groups,  the  first  a  large  group,  the 
second  half  as  large  as  the  first  and  the  third  still  smaller.'  That 
is  what  he  said  when  he  answered. 

'■  Then  they  replied,  '  Truly  you  have  seen.  The  groups  repre- 
sent the  people  of  earth.  The  first  group  you  saw  was  composed  of 
those  who  have  not  repented;  the  second  group  was  inclined  half 
way,  and  the  third  group,  the  smallest  one,  was  composed  of  those 
who  have  repented.  They  are  protected  by  the  true  belief  in 
Gai'wiio'.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 


"  So  they  proceeded  a  short  distance  and  again  came  to  a  halt. 
Then  the  messengers  pointed  out  a  spot  and  bade  him  watch  at- 
tentively. Then  he  saw  a  house  strongly  built  and  within  it  he  saw 
three  different  things.  The  first  was  a  i)air  of  handcuff's,  the  second 
a  whip  and  the  third  a  hang-rope." 

"  Then  asked  the  messengers,  '  What  did  you  see  ?  ' 
"  He  answered,  '  The  house  I  saw  was  strongly  built  and  within 
the  house  I   saw  three  different  things.     The  first  was  a  pair  of 
handcuff's,  the  second  a  whip  and  the  third  a  hangman's  rope.'     So 
he  answered. 

1  Those  who  gain  great  riches  and  lack  humihty  can  not  stand  upon  the 
sky-road  nor  can  they  walk.  The  poor  and  meek  only  can  travel  skyward 
and  not  even  the  poor  unless  their  ways  have  been  humble  and  marked  with 
virtue.  Thus  it  is  said,  "  It  is  better  to  be  poor  on  earth  and  rich  in  the 
sky-world  than  to  have  earth  riches  and  no  heaven." 


"  Then  they  repHed,  '  Truly  it  is  a  strongly  built  house.  It  is  a 
prison.  Now  it  is  true  that  three  things  are  there  for  punishment. 
How  hard  il  is  for  a  transgressor  to  see  that  he  should  be  punished; 
yet  it  is  the  cry  of  the  people  that  the  laws  of  the  white  man  are 
better  than  the  teachings  of  (jai'wiio'.  This  frightens  even  the 
Great  Spirit  for  he  knows  the  punishment  of  those  who  say  such 
things."  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    87 

"  So  they  proceeded  and  it  was  not  long  before  they  said,  '  We 
must  stop  here.'  Then  they  pointed  in  a  certain  direction  and  com- 
manded him  to  watch.  So  he  watched  and  as  he  did  he  saw  a  house 
with  a  spire  and  a  path  leading  into  the  house  and  none  out.  There 
was  no  door,  neither  were  there  any  windows  in  the  house.  Within 
was  a  great  noise,  wailing  and  crying,  and  the  house  was  hot. 

"  Then  the  messengers  asked  him  what  he  saw. 

"  He  answered,  '  I  saw  a  house  with  a  spire  and  a  path  leading  to 
the  house.  There  was  no  door,  neither  were  there  any  windows  in 
the  house.  Within  was  a  great  noise,  wailing  and  crying,  and 
the  house  was  hot." 

"  Then  they  replied,  '  You  have  truly  seen.  It  is  a  hard  matter 
for  Indians  to  embrace  these  conditions,  that  is,  to  embrace  the 
belief  of  Bible  believers.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


So  they  proceeded  and  had  not  gone  far  when  the  messengers 
said,  '  Look  downward  upon  the  Buffalo  Creek  reservation.' 

'■  Se  he  looked  and  the  place  seemed  honeycombed  and  covered 
with  a  net. 

"  Then  the  messengers  asked  him  what  he  saw. 

"  He  answered,  '  I  saw  the  Buft'alo  Creek  reservation  and  it 
seemed  honeycombed  like  ice  and  covered  with  a  net.'    So  he  replied. 

"  Then  the  mes.sengers  said,  '  Truly !  W'c  think  that  this  reserva- 
tion will  fall."  Now  they  said  moreover  that  it  was  the  duty  of  the 
chiefs  to  preserve  it  but  it  should  be  hard  for  some  should  take  an 
upper  hand.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  So  they  proceeded  a  little  ways  farther  and  soon  they  said, 
'  We  will  stop  here.'  Then  they  pointed  out  a  certain  spot  and  said, 
'  Watch !    Look  upon  the  eastern  heavens  and  observe !  ' 


"  So  he  looked  and  saw  two  immense  drops  (or  balls  of  liquid) 
hanging,  one  red  and  one  yellow.  It  seemed  that  they  were  sus- 
pended only  for  an  instant  and  would  momentarily  fall. 

"  Then  the  messengers  asked,  "  What  did  you  see  there?  ' 

"  He  answered,  '  I  saw  two  drops,  one  red  and  one  yellow,  sus- 
pended as  if  about  to  fall.' 

"  Then  the  messengers  replied,  '  Truly  you  have  spoken.  It  is 
so.  Should  one  of  those  drops  fall  it  would  bring  great  calamity 
upon  the  earth.  Many  people  would  leave  the  earth  should  one 
drop  but  we  are  doing  our  utmost  to  prevent  such  an  event.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  So  they  proceeded  but  had  not  gone  a  long  distance  before  they 
said,  '  We  will  stop  and  watch  a  certain  place.  Now  listen  to  the 

■■  So  he  listened  and  as  well  as  he  could  understand  he  thought 
that  he  heard  wailing  and  mourning.  The  sounds  seemed  to  be  the 
crying  of  children. 

"  Then  the  messengers  asked,  '  What  did  you  observe?  ' 

"  He  answered,  '  I  thought  that  I  heard  the  wailing  of  the  aged 
and  the  crying  of  children.' 

"  Then  the  messengers  replied,  '  It  is  true.  What  you  have  heard 
is  the  substance  of  life  going  back  to  the  Creator.  WHien  this  time 
conies  there  will  be  great  misery  upon  the  earth.'  '' 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 


"  So  they  proceeded  a  little  ways  farther  and  in  a  short  time  they 
reached  a  certain  spot  and  stopped. 

"  Then  said  the  messengers,  '  Look  toward  the  setting  sun.' 
"  So  he  looked  and  saw.     Now  as  he  looked  he  seemed  to  see  a 
man  pacing  to  and  fro.     He  seemed  to  be  a  white  man  and  in  his 
hand  he   seemed   to   have   a   bayonet   with   which   he   prodded   the 
ground.     Now  moreover  he  seemed  very  angry. 
"  Then  said  the  messengers,  '  What  did  you  see  ? ' 
"  He  answered,  '  I  saw  what  seemed  to  be  a  man  pacing  to  and 
fro.     He  seemed  to  be  a  white  man  and  in  his  hand  he  seemed  to 
have  a  bayonet  with  which  he  prodded  the  ground,  and,  moreover, 
it  seemed  that  he  was  angry.'     So  he  said  when  he  answered. 

"  Then  the  messengers  said,  '  It  is  true.  He  is  a  white  man  and 
in  a  temper.     It  is  true.     Indians  must  not  help  him  and  the  head- 


men  must  lionestly  strive  to  prevent  their  followers  from  helping 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 


"  So  they  proceeded  on  their  journey  and  had  not  gone  far  when 
they  stopped. 

"  Then  the  messengers  said,  '  Watch  attentively.'  Then  they 
pointed  out  to  him  a  certain  spot  midway  between  the  earth  and  the 
clouds.  So  he  watched  there.  Now  this  is  true.  He  saw  a  house 
suspended  there  and  on  the  veranda  with  a  railing  about  it,  a  man 
walked  and  with  him  was  a  penny  dog  (kwen'nis  dji''ya).  Now 
moreover  the  man  was  rejoicing  and  he  was  a  white  man. 

"  Then  said  the  messengers,  '  What  did  you  see? ' 

"  He  answered,  '  I  saw  a  house  suspended  in  the  air  and  on  the 
porch  with  a  railing  about  it  a  man  was  walking  and  with  him  was  a 
penny  dog.    Now  moreover  the  man  was  a  white  man.' 

"  Then  the  messengers  said.  *  Truly  you  have  seen.  It  is  said 
that  the  man  is  the  first  and  oldest  president  of  the  United  States. 
Now  he  enjoys  himself  and  he  is  the  only  white  man  so  near  the 
new  world  of  our  Creator.  Now  it  is  said  that  there  was  once  a 
time  when  the  Thirteen  Fires  and  the  King-  were  in  trouble.  The 
Thirteen  Fires  were  victorious  and  this  man  won  the  victory  from 
the  king.  Said  the  king.  "  You  have  overpowered  me,  so  now  I 
release  everything  that  was  in  my  control,  even  these  Iroquois  who 
were  my  helpers.  It  rests  with  you  what  shall  be  done  with  them. 
Let  them  be  to  you  a  thing  for  a  sacrifice."  Then  said  the  presi- 
dent, "  I  shall  let  them  live  and  go  back  to  the  places  that  are  theirs 
for  they  are  an  independent  people."  So  it  is  said.  Now  this  man 
did  a  great  work.  He  has  ordered  things  that  we  may  enjoy  our- 
selves, as  long  as  the  sun  shines  and  waters  run.  This  is  the  doing 
of  our  Great  Creator.'  "^ 

So  thev  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

1  This  section  refers  to  the  "  war  in  the  west,"  probably  General  Har- 
rison's campaign  against  Tecumseh  in  181 1.  Red  Jacket  and  all  the  principal 
chiefs  were  anxious  to  preserve  peace  and  did  all  within  their  power  to 
prevent  their  young  warriors  from  enlisting  on  either  side  but  were  not 
entirely  successful.  The  issue  was  of  such  moment  that  the  prophet  deemed 
it  wise  to  reveal  the  will  of  the  four  messengers  in  the  matter. 

2  The  word  here  is  feminine  and  should  be  translated  queen  but  this  would 
manifestly  not  be  in  accord  with  truth.  The  error  was  made  by  Chief  John 
Jacket  who  wrote  out  the  Gai'wiio'  in  Seneca  in  i860,  during  the  reign  of 
Queen  Victoria. 

3  See  Washington  and  the  Iroquois,  p.  137. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  67 

SECTION    93 

"  So  then  they  proceeded  on  their  journey  Ijut  had  not  gone  far 
when  they  stopped. 

'•  Then  the  messengers  said,  '  Watch,'  and  pointed  to  a  certain 
spot  toward  the  setting  sun. 

"  So  he  watched  and  saw  a  large  object  revolving.  It  was  white 
and  moving  slowly. 

"Then  said  the  four  messengers,  'What  did  you  see?' 

"  He  answered,  '  I  saw  a  large  object  revolving.  It  was  white  and 
I  moving  slowly.' 

"  Then  said  the  messengers,  '  It  is  true.  The  thing  is  that  which 
regulates  the  air  over  the  earth.  It  is  that  which  we  call  the  (Jda'eo 
(the  veil  over  all).  It  is  said  that  it  would  bring  great  calamity 
should  it  revolve  too  fast.  Should  it  turn  faster  it  would  injure 
mankind.  Now  we  are  the  regulators  and  watchers  of  the  veil 
over  all.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said,     luiiaiehuk. 


"  So  they  proceeded  on  their  journey  and  it  happened  that  a 
vision  appeared  unto  them.  They  seemed  to  be  advancing  toward  an 
approaching  man.  Soon  they  met  him  and  passed.  Now  when  they 
were  a  distance  apart  they  turned  and  he  was  facing  them.  So  they 
greeted  each  other.  Then  said  the  man,  '  vSedwago'wane,  I  must 
ask  you  a  question.  Did  you  never  hear  your  grandfathers  say  that 
once  there  was  a  certain  man  upon  the  earth  across  the  great  waters 
who  was  slain  by  his  own  people?  '  That  was  what  he  said  when 
he  spoke. 

"  Then  answered  Sedwago'wane,  '  It  is  true.  I  have  heard  my 
grandparents  say  this.' 

"  Then  answered  the  man,  '  I  am  he.'  (Sega"'hedus,  He  zvlio 
resurrects).  And  he  turned  his  palms  upward  and  they  were 
scarred  and  his  feet  were  likewise  and  his  breast  was  pierced  by  a 
spear  wound.  It  appeared  tliat  his  hands  and  his  feet  were  torn 
by  iron  nails. 

"All  this  was  true.  It  could  be  seen  and  blood  was  fresh  ui)on 

"  Then  said  the  man,  '  They  slew  me  because  of  their  independ- 
ence and  unbelief.  So  I  have  gone  home  to  shut  the  doors  of  heaven 
that  they  may  not  see  me  again  until  the  earth  passes  away.     Then 


68  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM  | 

will  all  the  people  cry  to  me  for  succor,  and  when  I  come  it  will  be 
in  this  wise :  my  face  will  be  sober  and  I  shall  turn  it  to  my  people. 
Now  let  me  ask  how  your  people  receive  your  teachings.' 

"  He  answered,  '  It  is  my  opinion  that  half  my  people  are  inclined 
to  believe  in  me.' 

"  Then  answered  he,  '  You  are  more  successful  than  I  for  some 
believe  in  you  but  none  in  me.  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  in  the 
end  it  will  also  be  so  with  you.  Now  it  is  rumored  that  you  are 
but  a  talker  with  spirits  (djis'ga'Mataha"  M-  Now  it  is  true  that  I 
am  a  spirit  and  the  one  of  him  who  was  murdered.  Now  tell  your 
people  that  they  will  become  lost  when  they  follow  the  ways  of  the  . 
white  man."  " 

So  that  is  what  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    95 

"  So  they  proceeded  on  their  journey  and  had  not  gone  far  when 
they  came  to  a  halt. 

"  Then  the  messengers  pointed  out  a  certain  spot  and  said, 
'  Watch  attentively,"  and  beheld  a  man  carrying  loads  of  dirt  and 
depositing  them  in  a  certain  spot.  He  carried  the  earth  in  a  wheel- 
barrow and  his  task  was  a  hard  one.  Then  he  knew  that  the  name 
of  the  man  was  Sagoyewat'ha,  a  chief. 

"Then  asked  the  messengers,    'What  did  you  see?' 

"  He  answered,  '  I  beheld  a  man  carrying  tlirl  in  a  wheelbarrow 
and  that  man  had  a  laborious  task.  His  name  was  Sagoyewat'ha, 
a  chief." 

"  Then  answered  the  messengers,  '  You  have  spoken  truly.  Sago- 
yewat'ha is  the  name  of  the  man  who  carries  the  dirt.  It  is  true 
that  his  work  is  laborious  and  this  is  for  a  punishment  for  he  was 
the  one  who  first  gave  his  consent  to  the  sale  of  Indian  reservations. 
It  is  said  that  there  is  hardship  for  those  who  part  with  their  lands 
for  money  or  trade.  So  now  you  have  seen  the  doom  of  those  who 
repent  not.    Their  eternity  will  be  one  of  punishment."  ""-' 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

^  See  Spiritism,  p.  126. 

-  The  foHowers  of  the  Gai'wiio'  to  this  day  mention  the  name  of  Red  Jacket 
with  contempt.  While  they  acknowledge  his  mental  superiority  they  have 
no  other  admiration  for  him.  He  was  ever  the  enemy  of  Cornplanter  and 
Ganiodaiio  with  whom  he  had  frequent  collision  and  recognized  the  sachem- 
prophet  only  as  an  impostor.  The  teachings  of  Ganiodaiio  have  done  much 
to  prejudice  the  Iroquois  against  Ked  Jacket. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME   LAKE  •  69 

SECTION    96 

"  Now  again  they  took  up  their  journey  and  had  not  traveled  far 
when  they  saw  a  crowd  on  both  sides  of  the  road.  And  when  they 
came  to  where  it  was  they  saw  that  they  were  at  the  forks  of  the 
road.  One  road,  on  the  right,  was  a  narrow  one  and  the  tracks 
upon  it  were  mostly  those  of  children  and  all  were  pointed  in  one 
direction.  Few  adults  had  their  tracks  on  this  road,  the  road  rough 
and  wide.  Now  as  they  watched  they  saw  a  woman  approaching 
the  forks  of  the  road  from  behind  them.  She  came  to  where  the 
road  divided  and  as  she  halted  before  the  roads  a  man  who  stood 
to  the  left  shouted,  '  To  this  side."  (  Now  the  road  of  the  wicked 
is  owa'etga",  a  rough  road. )  Then  the  man  on  the  right  said, 
'  Not  so.  This  woman  has  done  her  whole  duty.  She  has  truly 
repented.'  Then  answered  the  man  on  the  left,  '  You  are  wrong, 
for  her  repentance  has  been  of  short  duration  and  so  of  slight  elTect. 
But  the  man  on  the  right  replied,  '  Truly  in  her  earth-life  she  re- 
pented and  was  faithful  to  her  promises.  This  is  all  that  is  required 
and  she  will  walk  upon  the  narrow  road." 

"  Now  one  of  the  messengers  turned  to  him  and  said,  '  The 
woman  has  lived  a  repented  life  for  three  days  and  has  entered 
into  the  happy  eternity.  It  was  not  an  easy  matter  for  her  to  do  so 
of  herself,  but  we,  the  messengers,  have  plead  before  the  Creator 
and  he  has  heard  us.  Three  times  we  assist  every  one  who  believes 
to  continue  in  the  faith  of  the.  ( iai'wiio".  At  this  division  in  the 
great  road  we  guide  the  spirits  of  the  earth  into  Tain'tciade 
(heaven  land).  :\t  the  forks  of  the  road  the  spirits  of  the  dead 
are  divided.  The  narrow  road  leads  to  the  pleasant  lands  of  the 
Creator  and  the  wide  and  rough  road  leads  to  the  great  lodge  of 
the  punisher.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  So  now  another. 

"  '  Verily  you  have  seen  the  breast  of  a  man  hanging  here  bv  the 
road  and  in  the  center  of  that  breast  you  saw  a  bullet  hole.^  Now 
we  have  caused  this  thing  to  be  placed  there.  All  will  see  it  and 
he  will  see  it  who  did  the  wrong  when  he  comes  upon  the  great 
road  and  know  that  he  nnist  turn  aside  and  enter  upon  a  journey 
over  the  wide  and  rough  road.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

1  See  section  56. 


SECTION    98 

''  Now  again  they  told  him  that  they  would  take  up  their  journey 
and  as  they  went  they  drew  near  to  the  house  of  the  punisher.  As 
they  went  over  the  broad  road  they  walked  well  on  the  sides  for  the 
path  was  very  stony.  Now,  strange,  this  was  true ;  some  great  force 
seemed  pushing  them  onward  toward  the  house  of  the  punisher.^ 
Soon  they  began  to  inhale  heated  air  and  soon  they  heard  the  far 
away  echoes  of  mournful  cries  borne  on  the  blasts  of  the  hot  wind. 
At  times  the  air  was  sulTocating  and  the  cries  of  the  doomed  were 

So  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 


"  Now  they  approached  a  great  lodge.  It  seemed  constructed  of 
iron  that  had  been  highly  heated  and  allowed  to  cool.  Within  the 
building  hot  vapor  was  rising  from  the  fire  pits. 

"  Now  the  messengers  spoke  saying,  '  Let  us  tarry  here  a  while." 
Then  one  of  the  beings  took  from  his  bosom  a  crystal  and  pointed  it 
at  the  lodge.  He  approached  holding  the  glass  at  arm's  length  and 
as  he  came  near  the  lodge  arose  to  the  height  of  the  man  so  power- 
ful was  the  crystal."     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   100 

"  Now  they  saw  and  then  everyone  knew  that  the  house  was  very 
long  and  extended  far  out  of  the  eye's  reach.  Now  this  is  true. 
When  a  certain  woman  within  saw  the  four  and  him  drawing  near 
she  stretched  out  her  arms  and  cried  for  help.  Then  answered  the 
four,  '  It  is  beyond  our  power  to  alter  your  condition  now.  Our 
work  was  with  you  on  earth.    Too  late.'  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   1 01 

"  Now  as  they  looked  they  saw  a  being  walking  about  as  if  he 
were  the  master  of  the  lodge.  He  seemed  continually  distorting 
himself.  At  times  horns  shot  out  from  his  forehead,  at  times  a 
cloven  foot  api)earcd  and  at  times  a  tail  was  visible. - 

1  The  prophet  here  alludes  to  the  ease  with  which  one  may  glide  over  the 
broad  road.  "  It  is  no  work  to  sin,"  says  the  preacher,  "  for  the  devil 
furnishes  the  legs  for  you." 

2  The  prophet  has  very  evidently  borrowed  his  devil  from  transatlantic 


"  Then  said  the  four  messengers  to  Ganioclai'io',  '  That  being  is 
the  punisher.     It  is  he  who  torments  those  who  have  refused  the 
.  words  of  Gai'wiio'  when  they  heard  them  on  the  earth.'  " 
So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  In  a  loud  voice  the  punisher  cried  to  a  certain  person  saying, 
'  Come  hither.'  The  punisher  held  a  drinking  vessel  in  his  hand 
and  within  it  was  molten  metal  and  thrusting  it  in  the  hands  of  the 
man  he  had  called  he  said,  '  Now  wann  yourself  again  as  was  your 
custom  while  on  the  earth  for  you  loved  hot  drink.'  Now  the  man 
pleaded  but  the  punisher  compelled  him  to  swallow  the  molten 
metal.  Then  the  man  screamed  in  a  loud  voice  and  fell  prone  upon 
the  ground  with  vapor  steaming  from  his  throat.  Now  he  cried 
no  more. 

"  Then  said  the  four  messengers,  '  You  have  seen  the  manner  of 
punishing  those  who  persist  in  taking  the  fiery  drink.'  " 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   103 

"  Now  as  they  looked  the  master  of  the  house  spoke  saying, 
'  Come.'  Now  the  master  knew  the  name  of  every  one  within  the 
house.  And  straightway  a  woman  came  to  where  he  stood.  Then 
he  grabbed  her  and  forced  her  body  into  a  great  cauldron  filled  with 
a  boiling  liquid.  Frequently  he  looked  down  into  the  cauldron  to 
see  if  the  woman  had  come  again  to  the  top.  Suddenly  she  shot 
to  the  surface  crying  in  a  strange  voice  like  some  unknown  animal 
and  then  sank  down  again.  Soon  again  she  appeared  and  cried, 
'  O,  it  is  too  hot !  I  should  have  an  interval  in  which  to  cool  my- 
self!' Answered  the  punisher,  'Thou  are  not  one-minded,'  and 
jerking  her  out  he  flung  her  on  one  side.  But  the  woman  screeched 
in  agony,  '  ( ),  it  is  too  cold  !  '  and  her  complaint  w^as  continuous 
and  she  moaned,  '  It  is  too  cold  !  '  Then  the  punisher  thrust  her 
back  into  the  boiling  cauldron  and  immediately  her  bones  rattled  to 
the  bottom.  Such  was  the  punishment  given  by  the  keeper  of  the 
house  of  torment. 

"  Then  spoke  the  four  messengers  and  said,  '  This  is  the  punish- 
ment given  those  who  practice  witchcraft.  The  woman  whom  you 
saw  will  suffer  two  deaths  in  this  place  and  when  her  body  is  re- 
duced to  dust  the  punisher  will  gather  them  up  again  and  conjure 
the  dust  back  into  a  living  body  and  continue  his  sport  until  finally 


he  has  become  weary  when  he  will  blow  her  ashes  to  destruction. 
Such  things  happen  to  those  who  will  not  believe  in  Gai'wiio'.'  " 
So  they  said  and  he  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    104 

"  Now  he  saw  a  certain  nude  woman  connng  out  from  a  crowd 
and  in  all  the  hair  of  her  body  were  writhing  serpents.  Her  cheeks 
were  parched  to  the  bone  where  she  had  been  wont  to  color  them 
and  likewise  where  her  hair  was  parted  there  was  no  flesh.  Now 
she  was  greatly  ashamed  but  she  could  not  cover  her  nakedness.  So 
in  this  condition  he  saw  her. 

"Then  said  the  four  messengers,  'Saw  thou  that  woman?  In 
life  she  was  wont  to  give  on'oityi'yende,  [secret  powders]  to  men 
to  attract  them  to  her.  So  you  have  seen  the  punishment  meted 
out  to  those  who  do  tiiis  and  do  not  repent."  " 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    105 

"  Now  they  revealed  another. 

"  Now  the  master  of  the  house  looked  about  and  saw  another 
person.  So  he  said,  '  Come  here,  my  nephew,  I  wish  to  see  you  flog 
your  wife  as  was  your  custom  on  the  earth.'  The  punisher  then 
pointed  out  the  image  of  a  woman  heated  hot  with  fire  and  com- 
manded the  man  to  beat  the  image.  Then  the  man  pleaded  with 
moans  to  be  released  from  the  command  but  the  i)unisher  forced 
him  to  strike  the  image  with  bis  bare  hands,  and  the  man  fell  in 
agony  prostrate  upon  the  floor  screaming.     So  he  saw. 

"  Then  said  the  four  messengers,  '  You  have  seen  the  punish- 
ment given  to  the  man  who  beat  his  wife.  Thus  it  will  be  with  all 
who  fail  to  repent  and  fail  to  believe  in  Gai'wiio'.  Now  such  was  the 
evil  that  this  man  did  to  grieve  his  Creator."  " 

So  they  said  and  he  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    106 

"  Now  they  revealed  another. 

"  The  master  of  the  house  called  out  the  names  of  two  persons, 
saying.  '  Come  here,  my  nephews,''  and  straightway  they  stood 
before  him.  Then  said  he.  '  Commence  an  argument,  you  two,  for 
vou  are  the  man  and  wife  who  in  vour  earth-life  were  wont  to 

^  The  Seneca  term   means.  "  my  sister's  children,"  thus  both  nephews  and 


quarrel  continually,  so  quarrel  again !  "  Then  when  he  saw  that 
the  people  were  reluctant  he  compelled  them  to  argue.  Then  they 
disputed  until  their  eyes  bulged  from  their  heads,  their  tongues 
lolled  out  and  flames  of  fire  shot  from  ganii'shoo'.  So  this  was 
what  he  saw. 

"  Then  said  the  messengers.  '  This  is  the  i)unislrnent  reserved 
for  those  who  ciuarrel  without  ceasing  and  fail  to  repent.'  " 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    107 

"  Now  they  showed  him  another. 

"  Now  the  punisher  called  out  a  certain  woman's  name  saying, 
'  Come  to  me,  my  niece,'  and  straightway  she  came.  Then  said  he, 
'  It  was  once  your  delight  gaknowe'haat.'  As  he  said  this  he  lifted 
up  an  ol)ject  from  a  pile  and  thrust  it  within  her.  Now  the  ol)ject 
was  like  ha'ji'no'  ganiia'',  and  it  was  red  hot.  Then  she  cried  aloud 
in  agony  and  she  fell  with  steam  issuing  from  her  body.  Now 
there  were  three  piles  of  ga'naa",  the  first  white,  the  second  red  and 
the  third  black  and  all  were  ga'naa'.'     So  this  was  what  he  saw. 

"  Then  the  messengers  said,  '  You  have  seen  the  punishment  of 
the  immoral  woman.'  " 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   108 

"  Now  they  showed  him  another. 

"  Now  the  punisher  called  out  in  a  loud  voice  saying.  '  "Sly 
nephew,  come  hither,'  and  the  man  stood  before  him.  '  Now, 
nephew,  play  your  violin  as  was  once  your  delight.'  The  punisher 
handed  the  man  a  l)ar  of  hot  iron  and  forced  him  to  rub  it  upon 
his  arm.  So  he  played  and  the  cords  of  his  arm  were  the  strings 
of  the  instrument  and  made  the  music.  So  in  great  agony  he 
cried  and  screamed  until  he  fell.^ 

"  Then  said  the  four  messengers,  '  You  have  seen  the  punish- 
ment of  the  man  who  failed  to  repent.'  " 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   109 

"  Now  they  reveale<l  another. 

"  Now  the  punisher  called  out  in  a  loud  voice  and  commanded 
two  persons  to  appear  before  him.     Now  when  they  stood  before 

1  The  pagan  Indians  detest  the  "'  fiddle  "  and  "  hddle  dances  "  as  things  of 
great  evil  and  assert  that  they  produce  as  mucli  wickedness  as  drunken- 


him  he  liaiuled  them  what  seemed  a  pack  of  red  hot  iron  cards. 
Then  he  forced  the  two  to  sit  down  facing  each  other  and  com- 
j)elle(l  tliem  to  shuffle  the  cards  and  as  they  (Hd  flames  spurted 
out  from  between  them.  So  they  cried  out  in  great  agony,  sucked 
their  fingers  in  their  mouths,  handled  the  cards  again  until  their 
flesh  was  eaten  away  and  the  meat  fell  off.     So  this  is  what  he  saw. 

"  Then  the  messengers  said,  '  '["his  is  the  punishment  meted  out 
to  those  who  handle  cards  and  repent  not.'  " 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


"  \'erily  he  saw  those  who  were  upon  the  earth  and  those  who 
were  alive  and  he  saw  the  wicked  in  the  house  of  torment.  He 
saw  (iowono""'gowa  [she  great  talker],  Gakon'go'  [she-glutton 
animal],  Ganonjoni'yon  [hanging  kettle]  and  Hano'es  [head- 
eater  |.     \'erily  he  saw  these  four  persons. 

"  Then  said  the  four  messengers,  '  These  four  have  committed 
the  great  sin  and  can  not  be  forgiven.'  " 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 


■■  Then  said  the  messengers.  '  We  will  proceed  on  our  journey. 
Jt  would  be  a  hard  thing  should  we  tarry  too  long  and  meet  the 
Creator  on  the  road  before  we  reach  his  pleasant  lands.  If  we 
should  meet  him  you  should  be  compelled  to  stay  here  forever.'  "^ 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION     112 

"  Then  they  went  out  upon  the  narrow  rcjad  and  had  not  gone  far 
upon  it  when  a  far  n.ore  brilliant  light  appeared.  It  was  then  that 
they  smelled  the  fragrant  odors  of  the  flowers  along  the  road. 
Delicious  looking  fruits  were  growing  on  the  wayside  and  every 
kind  of  bird  flew  in  the  air  above  them.  The  most  marvelous  and 
beautiful  things  were  on  every  hand.  And  all  these  things  were  on 
the  heaven  road."     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION    113 

'■  .So  they  continued  on  their  journc\-  and  after  a  short  time  they 
came  to  a  hall.  Then  sj)okc  the  messengers.  '  This  place  is  called, 
'■  the  s])ring  "  and  it  is  a  i)lace  for  rest."  Then  behold  be  saw  the 
spring  and   be   thougbl    that    be   bad   never   seen    so   beautiful    and 

'  Sec  legend,  Two  Ijrothers  wlio  went  to  tlie  sk\',  p.   132. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  75 

clear  a  fount  of  water.  Then  said  the  four,  '  This  is  a  i)lace  of  re- 
freshment.' One  of  the  four  drew  a  bottle  from  his  bosom,  so  it 
seemed  and  it  was,  and  dipped  it  in  the  spring.  Then  he  said,  '  You 
must  partake  first,"  and  so  he  took  it,  but  when  he  looked  at  it  he 
thought  it  was  not  enough.  So  he  said,  '  I  think  that  this  is  not 
sufficient.'  And  when  he  had  said  this  the  messengers  looked  at 
one  another  and  smiled  and  one  said,  '  Truly  it  is  enough.  If  it 
lacks,  there  is  still  the  spring  and  the  vessel  may  be  refilled.  So  all 
took  and  drank  and  all  the  drink  that  all  wished  was  in  the  bottle. 
Then  said  the  messengers,  '  This  is  a  place  of  meeting.  Now  we 
will  go  on  our  journey.'  "  [There  are  also  said  to  have  been  two 
other  meeting  places,  Dioge"'djaie,  Grassy  Place,  and  Dion'dot,  The 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   114 

"  So  then  they  proceeded  on  their  journey  and  had  gone  but  a 
short  way  when  they  saw  someone  coming  toward  them  and  it  was 
not  long  before  they  met.  Then  he  saw  it  was  a  dog  and  when  they 
met,  the  dog  began  to  wag  its  tail  and  sprang  upon  him.  Then  he 
recognized  the  animal  as  his  own  dog  and  it  appeared  just  as  it  had 
when  he  had  decorated  it  for  the  sacrifice  in  tlie  Madidji'yontwCis 
[New  Year's  ceremony].  Then  said  the  four,  '  Tliis  thing  attests  to 
the  value  of  our  thankotiering  to  the  Creator.'  "^ 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   115 

"  So  they  took  up  their  journey  again  and  in  a  short  time  came 
to  a  halt.  In  the  distance  before  them  a  man  appeared  to  Ijc  coming 
and  soon  he  came  nearer.  Then  he  saw  that  the  man  was  guiding 
two  others,  one  on  either  side  of  him.  Now  as  he  looked  he  saw 
that  one  was  the  daughter  of  (iaiant'waka  and  it  appeared  that  she 
was  a  large  child.  With  her  was  his  ( ( lanio'dai'io" )  own  son,  an 
infant,  and  they  greeted  one  another,  the  son  and  the  daughter. 
Now  one  could  see  that  they  were  not  strangers  for  they  were 
friendly.  Now  moreover  a  fourth  person  was  leading  them  all." 

SECTION    116 

"  Now  that  person  spoke  and  said,  '  I  brought  them  w  itii  me  to 
testify  to  the  truth  that  those  of  the  lower  world  when  they  i)ass 
away  come  hither.' 

1  See  p.  85,  Sacrifice  of  the  white  dog. 


"  Then  spoke  the  daughter  of  Gaian'twaka,  '  I  send  a  message. 
It  is  this :  It  grieves  me  to  know  that  my  brothers  on  the  earth  dis- 
agree with  my  father.  Bid  them  cease  their  disagreement.'  So 
she  said." 


.'SECTION   117 

"  So  they  took  up  their  journey  again  and  in  a  short  time  care 
to  a  hah.  There  was  a  more  brilhant  hght  and  as  they  stood  sud- 
denly they  heard  the  echo  of  a  commanding  voice  calhng  the  people 
together  for  the  performance  of  the  great  feather  dance. 

"  Then  asked  the  four  messengers,  '  What  think  you  has  hap- 
pened ?  ' 

"  He  answered,  '  I  heard  the  commanding  voice  of  Joi'ise  calling 
the  people  to  celebrate  the  great  feather  dance.' 

"  Then  replied  the  four  messengers,  '  Verily,  Joi'ise,  your  friend 
is  he  who  calls.  He  it  was  who  was  faithful  and  good  and  when 
he  passed  away  in  the  lands  of  the  Creator  he  continued  as  on  the 
earth  [to  be  a  leader].'  " 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   118 

"  So  they  took  up  their  journey  again  and  after  a  ways  the  four 
messengers  said,  '  We  have  arrived  at  the  point  where  you  must 
return.  Here  there  is  a  house  prepared  for  your  eternal  abode  but 
should  you  now  enter  a  room  you. could  never  go  back  to  the  earth- 
world.'  " 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION     119 

"  Now  when  he  arrived  in  Tonawanda  having  come  from 
Diono"''sadege  he  was  reluctant  in  performing  his  religious  duties." 

SECTION   120 

"  Now  he  was  at  Cornplantcr  ten  years,  at  Cold  Spring  two  years 
and  at  Tonawanda  four  years.  From  there  he  went  to  Canonk- 
tivuk'gcg;u).  (  )n()iidaga,  and  there  fell  our  head  man." 

SECTION    121 

"  Now  it  ha])]'ened  that  while  he  still  abode  at  Tonawanda  an  in- 
vitation was  extended  by  the  people  of  Onondaga  asking  bin  t<> 
come  and  preach  (iai'wiio'  to  tlie  chiefs  and  head  men  there." 

THE    CODE    OF    HAXDSOME    LAKE  // 

SECTION    122  '  '        ' 

"  Now  it  happened  that  the  four  messengers  ai)peared  to  him 
when  the  invitation  was  extended,  they  the  four  speakers  and  mes- 
sengers of  the  Great  Spirit  of  the  worlds. 

"  Now  the  first  words  that  they  spoke  were  these,  '  They  liave 
stretched  out  their  hands  pleading  for  you  to  come  and  tliey  are 
your  own  people  at  Onondaga.  Let  this  he  the  way,  prejxire  your- 
self and  cleanse  your  bod}-  with  medicine.'  It  is  necessar\-  moreover 
for  you  to  secrete  yourself  in  some  hidden  spot  and  await  our 
call  to  start.'  " 

So  they  said.    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   123 

"  Now  there  will  be  another  and  his  name  will  he  the  New 
Voice,  Hawenose''. 

"  So  now  it  was  that  Ganio'dai'io'  was  luddcn  the  third  lime  to 
sing  his  song  and  this  the  messengers  said  would  be  the  last. 

"  Now  then  he  said,  '  There  is  nothing  to  incuml)er  me  from  ful- 
filling my  call.'  " 

So  said  our  head  man.     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   124 

"  Thus  it  happened  in  the  past  and  it  is  the  truth. 

"  '  I  must  now  take  up  my  final  journey  to  the  new  world,'  he 
thought,  and  he  was  greatly  troubled  and  longed  for  the  home  of  his 
childhood  and  pined  to  return. 

1  Purification.  The  herb  used  most  extensive]}'  by  the  Iroquois  for  "purifi- 
cation "  was  witch  hopple,  the  liark  of  which  was  used  both  as  an  emetic 
and  a  purgative.  For  an  emetic  the  bark  was  peeled  upward  and  for  a 
purgative  downward. 

Early  in  the  spring  during  the  spell  of  warm  days  the  people  would 
take  their  kettles,  jars  of  soup  and  deerskins  and  go  alone  into  the  woods 
for  their  ceremony  of  purification.  Here  they  would  scrape  the  bark,  build 
a  fire  and  make  a  strong  infusion  of  the  witch  hopple  bark.  The  drink 
was  taken  in  large  quantities  and  then  the  Indian  would  sit  wrapped  in  his 
deerskin  to  await  the  results.  From  sunrise  to  sunset  the  drink  would  be 
taken  until  the  alimentary  tract  was  completely  emptied.  Toward  sundown 
a  little  soup  would  be  sipped  to  ward  off  excessive  weakness,  and  give 
strength  to  return  home.  The  next  morning  sweat  baths  were  often  taken, 
though  not  always,  and  then  solid  food  was  eaten.  This  process  was  thougiit 
to  purify  the  body  and  without  doubt  did  much  to  do  so.  Besides  the 
customary  spring  purification  others  were  sometimes  ordered  for  disease 
and  for  preparations  for  ordeals,  tests  and  ceremonial  purposes.  The 
process  was  again  repeated  in  the  autumn. 


"  Then  came  the  four  messengers  to  him  and  said,  '  The  children 
will  comfort  you  in  your  distress  for  they  are  without  sin.  They 
will  elect  a  certain  one  from  among  them  to  plead  that  you  continue 
to  ahide  among  them.'  " 

So  they  said.     Eniaiehuk. 

"  Now  it  happened  that  it  came  to  pass  that  all  the  children  as- 
sembled and  their  spokesman  did  his  utmost  to  exact  a  promise 
from  Ganio'dai'io'.  So  great  was  his  grief  that  after  he  had  spoken 
a  short  time  he  could  no  longer  plead.  Then  another  boy  was 
appointed  by  the  children,  a  boy  not  bashful  but  rough  and  bold. 
So  he,  too,  endeavored  to  persviade  Ganio'dai'io',  but  it  was  a  difficult 
task  for  him  and  lie  could  scarcely  speak,  but  he  did.  Then 
Ganio'dai'io'  made  an  answer  to  the  children.  He  rose  and  exhorted 
them  to  ever  be  faithful  and  a  great  multitude  heard  him  and  wept.'' 


"  Now  at  this  time  there  was  a  man  and  his  name  was  New  \"oice, 
a  chief  of  equal  rank  with  Cornplanter.  Now  this  man  urged 
Ganio'dai'io'  to  accept  the  invitation  of  his  friends  and  relatives  of 
Onondaga.  He  said,  'It  is  as  if  they  were  stretching  forth  their 
necks  to  see  you  coming.  Now  I  am  going  forth  to  a  gathering  of 
chiefs  at  Bufifalo  on  the  long  strip  that  is  the  fireplace  of  the  Six 
Nations,^  the  great  meeting  place  of  human  creatures.  I  will  go 
so  that  I  may  believe  that  you  are  on  your  journey  and  I  will  ride 
away  as  fast  as  my  horse  can  go.'     So  he  said." 

SECTION    126 

"  Now  then  Ganio'dai'io'  started  on  his  journey  and  a  large  num- 
ber followed  him  that  they  might  hear  him  speak.  They  had  no 
conveyances  but  traveled  afoot. 

"  Now  when  they  came  to  their  camping  spot  at  Ganowa'ges,-  he 
said  to  them  in  a  commanding  voice,  'Assemble  early  in  the  morn- 
ing.' Now  when  they  did  he  offered  thanks  and  afterward  he  said, 
'  I  have  had  a  dream,  a  wondrous  vision.  I  seemed  to  see  a  path- 
way, a  trail  overgrown  and  covered  with  grass  so  that  it  appeared 
not  to  have  been  traveled  in  a  long  time.'     Now  no  one  spoke  but 

'At  this  time  there  was  an  Onondaga  village  on  the  Buffalo  Creek  tract. 
It  became  therefore  a  legal  meeting  place  for  the  Six  Nations.  The 
Canadian  refugees  often  returned  to  council  there. 

2  The  site  of  the  village  opposite  the  present  Avon,  N.  Y. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  79 

when  all  had  heard  and  he  had  finished  they  dispersed  and  they  con- 
tinued on  their  journey." 

SECTION   127 

"  Now  their  next  camping  spot  was  near  Ganundase"ge'.^ 
"  Now  when  they  had  all  come  up  to  the  spot  he  called  out  in  a 
commanding  voice,  '  Come  hither  and  give  thanks.'  Now  when  the 
ceremony  was  over  he  said,  '  I  heard  in  a  dream  a  certain  woman 
speaking  but  I  am  not  able  to  say  whether  she  was  of  Onondaga 
or  of  Tonawanda  from  whence  we  came.'  So  this  was  what  he 
said  when  he  related  his  dream.  Then  all  the  company  dispersed." 

SECTION   128 

"  So  they  proceeded  on  their  journey. 

"  Now  it  happened  that  when  they  were  near  the  reservation  line 
he  said,  '  Let  us  refresh  ourselves  before  going  farther.'  So  they 
sat  down  and  ate  and  then  they  continued  on  their  journey." 

"  Now  it  happened  that  when  they  were  over  the  reservation  line 
that  he  said,  '  I  have  forgotten  my  knife.  I  may  have  left  it  where 
we  stopped  and  ate  last.  I  can  not  lose  that  knife  for  it  is  one  that 
I  prize  above  many  things.     Therefore  I  must  return  and  find  it.' 

"  The  preacher  went  back  alone  and  there  was  no  one  to  go  with 
him.  Now  he  became  very  ill  and  it  was  with  great  difficulty  that 
he  returned.  The  others  had  all  gone  on  to  the  council  but  he  was 
not  able  to  get  to  it  for  he  was  very  sick  and  in  great  distress.  So 
when  he  did  not  come  it  was  said,  '  Our  meeting  is  only  a  gathering 
about  the  fireplace.'  "     Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   129 

"  Now  it  happened  that  they  all  wished  to  comfort  him.  So  for 
his  ])leasure  they  started  a  game  of  lacrosse"  and  played  the  game 
well.  It  was  a  l^right  and  beautiful  day  and  they  brought  him  out 
so  that  he  might  see  the  play.  Soon  he  desired  to  be  taken  back 
into  the  house."    Eniaiehuk. 

SECTION   130 

"  Now  shortly  after  he  said  a  few  words.  To  the  numbers 
gathered  about  him  to  hear  his  inessage  he  said,  '  I  will  soon  go  to 

1  The  Seneca  village  near  the  present  site  of  Geneva,  N.  Y. 

2  Games  were  often  played  to  cheer  and  cure  the  sick.     Special  foods  were 
given  the  players. 


my  new  home.^  Soon  I  will  step  into  the  new  world  for  there  is  a 
plain  pathway  before  me  leading  there.  Whoever  follows  my  teach- 
ings will  follow  in  my  footsteps  and  I  will  look  back  upon  him  with 
outstretched  arms  inviting  him  into  the  new  world  of  our  Creator. 
Alas,  I  fear  that  a  pall  of  smoke  will  obscure  the  eyes  of  many  from 
the  truth  of  Gai'wiio'  but  I  pray  that  when  I  am  gone  that  all  may 
do  what  I  have  taught.' 

"  This  is  what  he  said.  This  is  what  (ianio'dai'io",  our  head  man, 
said  to  his  people."    Eniaiehuk. 

[Then  the  preacher  says:J  "Relatives  and  friends:  His  term 
of  ministry  was  sixteen  years.  So  preached  our  head  man,  Ganio'- 

"  Let  this  be  our  thanks  to  you  and  to  the  four  messengers  also. 
I  give  thanks  to  them  for  they  are  the  messengers  of  our  Creator. 
So,  also,  I  give  thanks  to  him  whom  we  call  Sedwagowane,  our 
great  tcaclier.     So,  also.  I  give  thanks  to  our  great  Creator. 

"  So  have  1  said,  I,  Sosondowa  (Great  Night),  the  preacher." 
[Signed  \         Edward  Cornplanter,  Sosondowa 

1  Handsome  Lake  died  lo,  1815,  at  Onondaga.  His  last  moments 
were  spent  in  a  small  cabin  near  the  creek  that  runs  into  Onondaga  creek  at 
the  foot  of  the  terrace.  Three  persons  attended  him  and  swore  to  keep  all 
details  secret.  He  is  said  to  have  died  before  his  nepliew,  Henry  Obcal, 
could  reach  him. 

PART  2 



The  midwinter  festival  of  tlie  Iroquois,  commonly  called  Indian  New 

Oil  the  third  day  of  what  tlie  Seneca  term  Niskowukni  ne''' 
Sade'gosha  or  the  moon  of  midwinter,  a  council  of  head  men  is 
cahed  and  ofticers  elected  to  officiate  at  the  Gana'yasta'  or  midwinter 
thanksgiving  ceremony  to  be  held  two  days  later.  Officers  are 
chosen  from  each  of  the  two  brotherhoods  -  of  clans. 

On  the  first  day  of  the  ceremony  officers  called  Ondeya,  dressed 
in  buffalo  skins,  meet  and  lay  out  a  route  of  houses  which  each  pair 
of  Ondeya  is  to  visit.  This  settled,  they  draw  the  buffalo  heads  over 
their  heads  and  start  out. 

There  are  three  excursions  of  (3ndeya  from  their  lodges,  one  at 

about  9  a.  m.,  one  at  about  12  m.  and  one  at  about  3  p.  lu.     Two 

Ondeya,  carrying  corn  pounders  painted  with  red  stripes,  knock  at 

the  door  of  a  house  and  entering  intone : 

Hail,  nephews.  Now  also  the  cousins  with  you.  Now  also  you  see  the 
big  heads. 

Ye  he  !    Gwiiwande  ! 

One""diq  wodewe'noye  ne'  ne'seso  gwiiwande  ! 

One""diq  iswage"'  noTwane' ! 

This  is  repeated  and  the  Ondeya  depart. 

At  noon  the  Ondeya  repair  to  their  meeting  place  and  emerging 

again  go  over  the  same  route.    Their  message  as  they  enter  a  lodge 

at  this  time  is  . 

Hail.  Be  clean  I  Do  not  be  confused,  O  nephews.  Do  not  tread  upon 
things,  nephews,  cousins,   when  you  move. 

Yehe !       lokweho"!      siinon'di      gwii'wandi !     danondnd.-ule, 

gwa  wancii    nenc  seso    nanondo  yano 

At  3  p.  m.,  returning  to  the  saiue  lodge,  the  message  is: 

Yehe !  Oise"dase'  susniun'nano  ne"  swaise''  dugayio'  sa"do.' 
One"  diq  Ttchigaine'so"  nongwuk'sado'  nenwande'  sii'no"  diq 
itch'nonadokte'  ongwukiido'.     One"  diq    nekho"    non'jiye. 

1  Taken    at    Newtown,     Cattaraugus  reservation,  January  1905,     by    A.    C. 

2  See  Phratries.  [81] 


After  one  has  intoned  this  message  or  announcement  the  other 
pokes  up  the  ashes  with  a  basswood  paddle  and  sings  a  song. 

The  first  day  is  spent  in  this  way,  formal  announcements  being 
given  by  the  officers. 

On  the  morning  of  the  second  day  all  the  lodges  are  visited  by 
officers  called  Hadeiyayo'.  Later,  say  9  a.  m.,  clan  officers,  known 
as  Hana'sishe,  begin  their  round  of. visits.  Two  men  and  two 
women  are  chosen  from  the  phratries  and  going  in  couples  to  the 
various  houses  conduct  a  thanks  or  praise  service.  The  burden  of 
tiieir  words  is  a  thanksgiving  to  God  for  the  blessings  that  have 
been  received  by  that  house  during  the  past  year. 

When  this  ceremony  is  over  these  officers  throw  up  a  ])a(ldle 
(Wadigusa'wea)  signifying  that  the  ceremony  is  over.  At  this 
time  a  chief  makes  a  long  thanksgiving  speech  in  the  council  house. 

At  noon  the  "  big  feather  "  dancers  visit  every  lodge  and  dance 
the  sacred  dance.  Two  women  at  least  must  participate.  On  enter- 
ing a  lodge  the  leader  of  the  feather  dancers  must  say : 

Onc""'diq'  hodo"issoin'yundc  scdwa'a'wuk  g;'io"'ya'ge' 
honon'ge".  Nekho"nai'  hodo'issho"go"oindi  ne''  hawo"n'. 
Hodawisa'se'  Osto'wagowa. 

One""diq'dji'wusno\vat     nc"     gissii"     ayc"ongrwe'     Osto'- 
wagowa.       Gagwego",'      one""        diq,'      djiwusnowat      heniyo"' 
swao'iwayando"' ! 

Da'neho" ! 

At  al)Out  2  p.  m.  public  dances  begin  in  the  "  long  house." 

The  Society  of  Bears,  which  during  the  early  afternoon  had  been 
holding  a  session  in  the  house  of  some  member,  enter  the  long  house 
and  dance  publicly.    The  same  is  true  of  the  False  Face  Company. 

Other  dances  are  the  Pigeon  song  dance  (Tca''kowa)  and  the 
Gada'ciot.  The  only  dance  in  which  physical  contact  is  permitted 
is  the  Yendomssonta'  or  "  dance  of  the  beans."  Dancers  hold  each 
other's  hands  as  they  circle  around  the  singers.  This  is  to  repre- 
sent the  bean  vine  as  it  clings  to  a  sapling  or  corn  stalk. 

On  the  morning  of  the  third  day  the  priest  arises  before  daylight 
and  standing  at  the  door  of  the  council  house  begins  his  song  of 
thanks.  The  song  is  sung  until  dawn  appears  and  then  the  priest 
ceases.  Should  a  fierce  wind  be  blowing  it  is  believed  that  when 
the  words  of  the  song  float  upward  the  Great  Spirit  will  say, 
"  Cease  your  movements,  Oh  wind,  I  am  listening  to  the  song  of 
my  children." 



The  first  verse  is  as  follows : 

One""  diq'  okno'wi,  One""   diq,'  dasenni"dottonde 

Giio'ya  giitci'ja'!    Yoandja'ge  ige"'s 

One""   diq'  o'gai'wayi'   one" 

Deawen'nisse  nei'gowes 



One""  diq'  wadi'wayeTs. 

The  song  begins  with  the  singer's  face 
to  the  west;  he  turns  and  sings  in  all  direc- 
tions, that  all  may  hear  his  voice. 

A  legend  relates  that  this  song  originated 
ages  ago.  An  old  woman  is  said  to  have 
been  with  child  and  before  her  son  was 
born,  from  the  heavens  came  this  song. 

Only  one  or  two  Indians  sing  this  now, 
no  others  being  able  for  some  reason. 
After  the  song  the  priest  calls  upon  the 
Cireat  Spirit  in  these  words: 

Ye,  ye-e,  yee  ! 

Dane"agwa  none"ne"ga'  ne'wa 
One""   diq  dasa"tondat'  gaoge'ge' 
tci  'ja",  etc.,  etc. 

At  about  9  a.  m.  another  officer  of  re- 
ligion enters  the  long  house  and  sings  the 
Ganio'dai'io'  song: 


Fig.  I  Prayer  rattle  made 
from  a  dried  squasli. 
Allegany  Seneca  specimen. 

I    love   my   world,    I    love   my   time,    I    love   my   growing 
children,  I  love  my  old  people,  I  love  my  ceremonies 

At  noon  various  societies  and  companies  which  have  been  hold- 
ing sessions  in  private  lodges  adjourn  to  the  council  house  to  en- 
gage in  public  cereiuonies.  The  great  feather  dance  is  celebrated 
at  noon.  Afterward  nearly  all  the  common  dances  are  given,  aiuong 
which  is  the  woman's  football  game  and  dance. 

The  morning  of  the  third  day  is  greeted  as  the  previous  day,  by 
the  song  and  prayer  of  the  priest. 



At  9  a.  m.  of  the  fourth  day  the  Gonio'dai'io'  song  is  chanted 
again.  IMeanwhile  the  company  of  harvest  dancers  hold  their 
dances  at  private  houses  going  to  the  long  house  (gano"'susge"') 
at  noon.  Soon  after  the  Bird  Society  or  Gane''gwae  enters  the 
council  house  and  begins  its  dance.  Two  dancers  are  chosen  from 
each  phratry,  as  are  also  two  speakers.  The  evening  is  devoted  to 
the  Trotting,  Fish.  Pigeon,  Bear,  False  Face,  Buffalo  and  other 
dances.    At  lo  p.  ni.  the  ceremonies  cease. 

On  the  fifth  day  the  dawn  ceremony  is  repeated  and  at  9  a.  m. 
the  Ganio'dai'io"  song  is  sung.     Societies  hold  meetings  in  their  own 


At  about  I  J),  m.  a  company  of  women  dancers  visit  each  house, 
dance  and  sing  and  return  to  the  long  house.  False  Face  beggars 
also  roam  from  lodge  to  lodge  in  search  of  sacred  tobacco.  In  the 
afternoon  and  evening  various  dances  are  held  in  the  long  house. 
At  about  II  p.  m.  the  Husk  Face  Company  enters  the  long  house 
and  engages  in  their  public  ceremony.  After  this  dance  the  people 
are  dismissed  by  a  chief. 

Adoowab  or  Thanksgiving  Mng 

Used   10  adoption  ceremony  t,„^„  ^  •„  «».,.  e-ui. 

(A»  sung  by  Chief  Jo»tpb   LyonJ  o»o«t*f  Cuttt.ttot 

0      wah  wti        wab 


Bo            Be 

He          B<    H« 

B»      a. 

i\,    hUMt  vhih  h  llMih^li  rn  p-nr-r  ;'Ji>  <  f-MliUlUi^^r^ 

k«  n 

•  h>                    Y 

1 — 1     1       1 

ukw.  , 

1    1 

u    lr»i 


■-' — -  -     ■ yr    t 

ke  OM  bM                    Yu  Inra  y 

"Ti — 1 — ri    I    1   1 

u    kwa 

■  ■"  V- 

ke  a 

1     1 

A  ba 

1     M     1 

1     1 

u    k>* 


ke   ua  hA 
-1 1 1 1 



J      IJ     J 



IJ  J  u  J  1^ 



J     IJ   J 



1    J         J        1 

\i^    i  7- III  [0^^4f^J^nM-JHJUiJ.]l  J'JU>7N  J■n\f^^s^^ 

«r — 

ru     k»«    yu    k>a        br    lu   lu                          Yu    k^-a    yu     k«a         ke    a 

1     1     1   1 f-H — 1     IJ  J     M       J     11 

1   ha 

Yu     k«m    yu      kn 

-      1       '   =i 


J      d        \    J          d         \  d         d-    i  d     d LA d 1    d 

d       1 

1               J 

The  n  orning  of  the  sixth  day  is  devoted  to  the  dog  sacrifice  and 
the  tobacco  ofifering.  Afterward  the  Ado"'we'  are  sung.  This  song 
may  be  translated :      1   am   now  going  home,   I   step  upon  another 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  85 

world,  I  turn  and  extend  my  arms  for  a  friend  to  lead  me,  I  pray 
all  may  go  where  I  go.  Now  the  earth  is  smoky  and  none  can  see 
the  other  world  [as  I  doj. 

On  the  seventh  day  the  Honon'diont  hold  a  morning  dance  and 
then  proceed  to  cook  the  feast.  Costumed  feather  dancers  enter 
the  long  house  and  dance.  The  "  wind  is  open  for  names,"  or 
opportunity  is  now  given  to  bestow  names.  At  this  ])oint  if  a  boy 
is  to  be  named  the  priest  rises  and  says.  "  Hio'gene"',  dji'waga  ne-e !  " 

■'  Hu'',  hu"',  hu''hu''-a!  "  respond  the  people. 

If  a  girl  is  to  be  named  there  is  no  ceremony  other  than  the  mere 
announcement  of  the  name.  A  speech  is  now  made  by  a  chief 
bidding  people  make  ready  for  the  sacred  bowl  game. 

Honon'diont  visit  each  lodge  exacting  from  every  person  stakes 
for  the  sacred  gamble.  Each  phratry  is  to  play  against  the  other 
The  Honon'diont  then  meet  and  matcli  articles,  value  for  value. 

The  night  previous  every  i)erson  endeavors  to  have  a  prophetic 
dream,  whereby  they  may  know  the  result  of  this  game.  No  one 
must  cheat  in  this  game  for  "  it  is  God's." 

The  great  feather  dance  is  repeated  and  names  bestowed  on  this 
tlay.    At  night  the  Husk  Faces  return  and  give  a  grand  final  dance. 

The  ninth  day  is  the  last  one  of  the  midwinter's  ceremony.  Early 
in  the  morning  the  priest  gives  a  thanksgiving  "  sermon."  At 
5  p.  m.  occurs  the  dance  in  honor  of  the  "  three  sisters,"  Diohe''ko, 
(these-we-live-on ).  Afterward  the  woman's  dance  is  held,  alter- 
nating with  the  following  men's  dances.  Trotting,  Pumpkin,  Pigeon 
and  Beans.     The  feast  is  then  distributed  and  the  people  disperse. 


A  preliminary  translation  of  the  ceremonial  jirayer  at  the  burn- 
ing of  the  white  dog  at  the  Seneca  Indian  new  year's  ceremony 

Wotokwaiiendakwa  Gaiantguntgwaa 

( wotok'waiien'dakwa  gaiaht'guntgwa') 

Gwa !  Gwa !  (jwa  ! 

So  now  this  is  the  appointed  time! 

Oh  listen,  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

1  Recorded  February  KyoCi,  at  Cattaraugus  reservation. 


Our  words  are  straight  — 

Only  these  can  we  speak  unto  you, 

Oh  you  from  whom  we  are  descended, 

Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

You  look  down  upon  us  and  know  that  we  are  all  children. 

Now  we  petition  you  as  we  burn  this  sacred  tobacco! 

Now  we  commence  our  invocation, 

Now  we  speak  of  all  that  you  have  created. 

Now  I  in  the  beginning]  you  did  think  that  men-beings  should  in- 
herit the  blessings  of  your  creations, 

For  you  did  say,  ''  Earth  was  my  birthplace !  " 

Now  we  have  spoken  in  this  incense  [throws  tobacco  upon  the 

Oh  now  inhale  the  smoke,  so  listen  to  our  words. 

Now  we  commence,  we  are  all  that  remain  upon  the  earth. 

You  behold  the  places  that  once  were  filled  but  now  are  empty ; 

We  were  unable  to  change  it  for  you  made  the  law. 

Now  you  think  that  there  should  be  two  conditions  of  temperature 
upon  the  earth  ; 

One  you  thought  should  be  cold  and  one  should  be  warm 

And  when  the  warm  season  came  that  Diohe''ko,  our  substance, 
should  spring  from  the  bosom  of  Earth,  our  mother. 

Now  we  have  harvested  the  Diohe"'ko  from  whence  our  living  is 

For  the  warm  season  has  gone  and  we  have  here  assembled. 

Now  we  have  made  inquiries  among  all  the  people  and  they  remem- 
ber their  promises. 

For  they  promised  you  that  they  should  assemble  again  at  Gaiwan- 
os'kwa  gowa' 

On  the  fifth  sun  of  the  moon  Niskowuk'ni. 

So  all  fulfilled  the  plan  and  gathered  together  in  the  moon  Nis'a, 
even  those  here  present, 

Oh  vou  who  were  born  of  Earth,  yet  dwell  in  the  sky! 

Now  all  have  fulfilled  the  law,  for  you  did  plan  that  the  rites  should 
be  per])etuated  even  forever. 

Now  we  are  conuucnciiig,  (  )h  you  who  were  born  of  I'larth  ! 

Upon  the  first  day  the  (Ireat  Feather  dance  went  through  the 
village  for  your  ])leasure. 

The  honon'diont  and  their  cousins  did  their  full  duty. 

Now  on  the  next  day  Ganeo'  was  celebrated ;  at  midday  they  went 
through  the  village. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  87 

And  you  did  give  us  great  joy  because  we  performed  this  ceremony 
For  you  did  think  that  ( ianeo'  shouhl  be  celebrated  U])on  the  earth 

for  thine  own  self. 
Thus  did  we  fulfil  your  desires,  Oh  you  who  were  born  of  hiarth, 

yet  live  in  the  sky ! 
Now  on  the  next  day  Gagandot  was  played. 
Truly  we  did  fulfil  your  desires, 

Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth,  you  who  live  in  the  sky ! 
You  did  see  all  that  was  done. 

Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth,  you  wlio  li\e  in  the  sky! 
In  the  beginning  you  thought  that  you  would  lay  this  sacred  tobacco 

by  man's  side 
That  men  should  have  an  incense  with  which  to  send  his  words  up 

to  the  sky. 
With  which  to  lift  his  words  when  the  year  ended. 
Truly  we  have  fulfilled  your  desires  and  here  we  have  that  l)asket 

of  sacred  tobacco. 
Oh    you   who   were   born   of    Earth,    you    who    dwell    in    the    sky! 
I  Throws  tobacco  on  the  flames.] 
So  now  the  smoke  arises ! 
Oh  inhale  the  incense  as  you  listen ! 

For  now  do  we  commence  to  speak  of  what  you  have  created. 
In  the  beginning  you  thought  that  there  should  be  a  world 
Upon  which  men  beings  should  travel 
That  you  might  say,  "  They  are  my  descendants." 
Now  there  is  a  shaft  that  reaches  up  to  you,  (laneowi,  the  sacred 

song  of  the  morning  it  is. 
Now  of  your  descendants  as  many  as  remain  are  gathered  here. 
Now  you  thought  that  there  should  be  two  sexes  of  men-beings. 
That  one  should  l)e  the  male  antl  one  should  be  the  female. 
And  the  function  of  the  female  should  be  the  rearing  of  children. 
I'ruly  the  females  are  fulfilling  the  design  of  their  creation 
For  in  their  arms  we  see  their  children. 
Truly  it  is  in  progress  what  you  planned  for  them. 
Now  the  smoke  arises ! 
So  now  inhale  this  sacred  incense! 

Now  we  petition  you  that  this  thing  should  continue  so  henceforth. 
And  shall  continue  as  long  as  the  earth  endures. 
Now  you  thought  that  there  should  be  a  world 
Upon  which  grasses  of  difi^erent  kinds  should  grow 


And  that  some  should  be  medicinal, 

And  that  some  should  yield   fruits   for  a  help  to  the  men-beings 

who  dwell  upon  the  earth. 
Thus  did  you  think,  O  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 
Now  it  was  ordered  to  be  so  when  the  warm  season  warmed  the 

And   that   it   should   be    fulfilled   them   and    that   your   descendants 

should  see  the  return  of  things. 
Now  again  the  smoke  arises 
And  the  people  speak  through  it  to  you, 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky  ! 
Now  we  implore  you  that   it  may  so  occur  again   when  the  earth 

That  your  desires  may  be  fulfilled  and  that  your  descendants  ma) 

again  see  your  creations. 
Now  again  the  smoke  arises 
And  the  people  speak  through  it  to  you, 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky 
Yet  were  born  of  Earth  ! 

Now'  our  sustenance  you  thought  should  be  placed  beside  us, 
And  that  men-l)eings  should  labor  for  their  living. 
These  plans  are  all  in  progress 
All  see  from  whence  their  living  comes. 

Now  we  implore  you  that   when  the  earth  warms  again  that   sus- 
taining food  may  grow. 
This  we  ask  by  the  power  of  the  incense  tobacco, 
( )h  inhale  it  and  listen  to  us, 
Oh  you,  our  great  ancestor, 
You  Avho  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

You  thought  that  there  should  be  veins  and  that  there  should  l)c 

fountains  of  water : 
Now  this  thought  is  made  a  fact  and  is  occurring 
So  we  ask  that  this  shall  continue. 
Now  again  the  smoke  arises 
To  you  the  father  of  all  men-beings. 
To  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

Now  you  thought  that  there  should  be  living  creatures, 
Inhabiting  the  waters,  useful  to  the  people. 

The  code  of  handsome  lake  89 

Now  your  thoughts  have  hai)pened  and  we  implore  you  that  it  may 

not  be  withdrawn, 
Oh  you  who  were  born  of  hearth, 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  tlie  sky  ! 
But  may  continue  as  long  as  earth  endures. 

So  now  another. 

You  did  think  that  there  should  be  world 

And  that  bushes  should  grow  upon  it  for  a  help  to  tlie  people, 
That  the  bushes  should  yield  various  fruits  for  the  benefit  of  men- 
(  )h  you  who  were  born  of  luirth. 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky, 
Ma}'  this  continue  as  long  as  earth  endures! 

Now  again  the  smoke  arises, 

Oh  inhale  the  incense  and  continue  to  listen 

Oh  you  who  were  born  of  F.arth 

(  )h  vou  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

So  now  another. 

Now  you  did  think  that  there  should  be  forests  ujion  the  earth 

And  that  they  might  be  a  helj)  to  the  people. 

So  now  moreover  you  did  think  that  there  should  be  a  certain  tree 

That  should  yield  sweet  water  from  its  trunk. 

Now  that  tree  is  the  ]Ma])le  and  it  is  faithful  to  its  design 

May  this  continue  to  be, 

(  )h  \'ou  who  dwell  in  the  sky  ! 

Now  again  the  smoke  arises. 

And  the  people  pray  that   this  may   still   continue   when  the  earth 

becomes  warm  again ! 
So  now  this  thing  is  done. 

Our  words  are  as  straight  as  we  could  make  them. 
Only  this  can  we  do  for  we  are  all  young 
Oh  you  who  were  born  of   h^.arth, 
(  )h  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky  ! 
So  now  this  one  thing  ends. 

So  now  another. 

You  have  createtl  wild  animals  that  roam  in  the  forests, 

You  did  think  that  they  would  be  a  pleasure  to  men-beings 


Who  should  remember  and  say,  "  We  are  his  descendants." 
Now  may  they  continue  so  to  be, 
Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth, 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky! 

So  now  another. 

The  people  are  speaking; 

They  are  continuing  from  the  commencement  of  creation 

Discussing  those  things  that  you  didst  think  would  be  a  benefit  to 

Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth. 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

Now  the  birds  that  inhabit  the  air, 

Birds  from  the  low  world  to  the  great  birds, 

Birds  that  float  above  the  clouds. 

All  these  you  did  think  would  be  a  benefit  to  mankind. 

Oh  you  who  w^ere  born  of  Earth, 

Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

Now  we  ask  that  this  thought  should  be  forever 

Even  as  long  as  earth  endures. 

Now  again  the  smoke  arises, 

Continue  to  listen  as  you  inhale  this  incense, 

For  we  are  discussing  the  things  of  your  creation 

That  you  did  think  should  be  a  benefit  to  mankind, 

Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth, 

Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

Now  you  did  think  that  there  should  be  a  world  and  that  it  should 

become  cold. 
At  a  recurring  season  become  cold  again. 
Now  we  implore  thee  that  it  should  not  be  too  great  a  cold 
And  likewise  when  the  earth  becomes  warm  again, 
That  the  heat  should  be  moderate  and  comfortable. 
Now  again  the  smoke  arises 
To  you  who  were  born  of  E.arth, 
To  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

So  now  another. 

Continue  to  listen ! 

You  did  think  that  there  should  be  a  wind 

And  that  it  should  be  a  help  to  the  world. 


\\  Now  the  wind  is  here. 
And  the  people  pray  that  it  may  continue  to  be  so  as  long  as  earth 

Now  again  the  smoke  arises 

To  you  who  were  born  of  Earth, 

To  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

Now  they  came  from  the  west. 

Ti'sot  we  call  them, 

Our  great  grandfathers  the  Thunderers ; 

You  did  make  them  our  relatives. 

They  were  placed  in  a  high  position 

That  they  might  care  for  the  earth 

And  feed  the  waters  that  flow  over  the  world  and  purify  them, 

And  freshen  all  things  that  grow. 

A  certain  season  was  appointed  for  their  activity 

The  season  when  the  earth  commences  to  become  warm  again. 

Now  again  the  smoke  arises, 

It  lifts  our  words  to  you, 

Oh  inhale  the  incense  and  continue  to  listen, 

Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth, 

Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

Now  the  whole  world  prays  that  you  will  listen. 

May  all  these  things  continue  as  long  as  earth  endures, 

Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth, 

Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

So  now  again  another. 

You  did  think  that  there  should  be  a  sky 

And  that  within  it  should  be  something  to  illuminate  the  world, 

Ende'ka  gaa''kwa,  our  great  brother,  the  mighty  warrior,  the  Sun, 

And  that  so  it  should  be  called  so. 

He  has  a  high  position  that  shall  last  as  long  as  earth  endures. 

Now  again  the  smoke  arises  and  so  smoke  tobacco  as  you  listen, 

Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth, 

Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 

Now  the  people  of  all  earth  with  one  voice  implore  you 

That  your  plan  may  be  carried  out  and  continue  as  long  as  earth 

So  do  your  descendants  pray. 


So  now  another. 

It  is  of  Soi'ka  gaa"k\va,  our  grandmother,  the  Moon  in  the  sky. 

You  did  make  her  a  sign  for  reckoning  the  years  of  children. 

Now  she  has  fulfilled  the  design  of  her  creation  so  far. 

Now  again  the  smoke  arises. 

Inhale  the  incense  as  you  continue  to  listen, 

Oh  you  who  were  horn  of  Earth, 

Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky! 

Through  the  smoke  we  pray  that  this  may  be  so  as  long  as  earth 

So  pray  your  descendants. 
Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth, 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 
So  have  they  said. 
Oh  you  who  were  born  of  E.arth, 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky! 

Now  you  did  think  that  there  should  be  a  sky 

And  that  sj^ots  should  be  in  the  sky 

For  signs  unto  the  people. 

So  did  you  design  this  to  be  so  as  long  as  the  earth  endures. 

And  the  people  implore  thee  that  this  may  continue  to  be  as  long 

as  the  earth  endures. 
Now  again  the  smoke  arises. 
And  through  it  the  people  speak. 
Oh  inhale  as  you  continue  to  listen. 
Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth, 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky  ! 

Now  you  did  design  all  that  which  should  occur  in  the  world. 
And  planned  the  four  sacred  ceremonies 
That  should  be  perpetuated  forever 
And  celebrated  by  the  people  each  year. 

Be  celebrated  by  these  who  call  themselves  your  descendants ; 
Hiat  there  should  be  head  ones  and  their  assistants 
To  perpetuate  the  four  ceremonies. 
Now  as  many  men-beings  as  remain  on  earth  are  here, 
Gathered  about  this  pole. 
Now  then  you  have  seen  that  we  commenced  at  the  new  part  of 

Now   you   shall   know    that   you   are   invited   to   listen   to   thanking 

songs  this  day ! 

I  The  head  chief  yells  Yokadi!  rjowagannie! 
The  people  answer  wo'  wo'  wo'!] 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  93 

Now  tomorrow  morning  you  must  consider  yourself  invited  to  the 
Great  Feather  Dance ! 

[Cries  by  the  head  chief  Hioh.  hiu.  hiu,  hiu! 
The  people  answer  lo'  io'  io'  io'  io'!] 

Two  parts  will  be   celebrated,  the   Great   Feather   Dance   and   the 
Harvest  Thanksgiving. 

[Cries  by  the  head  chief  Ganio'ganio  ganio! 
Answers  by  the  the  people  Ho-ni  ho-ni!] 

These  two  ceremonies   will  be   in   progress  tomorrow, 

Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth, 

Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky 

And  the  next  day  you  are  invited  to  the  sacred  ganc. 

[Cries  by  the  head  chief,  Ba-a'!  ba-a'!  ba-a'!  ba-a'!  ba-a'! 
Answers  by  the  people.  Hole!  hoie!  hole!  hole!) 

Now  again  the  smoke  arises 

The  incense  of  the  sacred  tobacco. 

To  you  who  were  born  of  Earth, 

Yet  dwell  in  the  sky 

Only  this  can  we  do 

To  fulfil  the  law. 

All  the  things  of  your  creation  that  you  have  made  visiljle  to  us 

We  thank  you  for  and  for  all  the  things  that  you  have  created. 

In  the  manner  that  you  did  think,  we  have  thanked  you. 

From  low  earth  upward  to  the  great  sky  where  you  are  living. 

With  all  their  strength  the  people  thank  you  and  you  have  seen  it, 

Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth, 

Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky  ! 

So  now  it  is  done. 

Now  you  did  think  that  you  would  appoint  four  messengers  whose 

work  should  be  to  watch  over  earth 
And  the  people  that  dwell  in  the  world 
To  keep  them  all  from  harm. 
For  men-beings  are  your  children. 

Now  do  I  say,  tiie  voices  of  the  people  combine  as  one 
To  thank  you. 
We    have    done    as    best    we   can    in    giving    thanks    to    the    four 

Now  again  the  smoke  arises, 
And  we  speak  through  its  incense. 
Inhale  the  smoke  as  you  do  listen. 
Oh  the  great  Handsome  i-ake  ! 


We  believe  that  he  is  happy  in  the  place  that  you  have  prepared 

for  him. 
Moreover  we  thank  him. 
Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth, 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 
Now  only  this  can  we  do. 
You  thought  that  it  should  be  this  way, 
Oh  you  that  were  born  of  Earth, 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 
Now  we  thank  you,  the  Creator  of  the  World. 
Here  are  gathered  so  many  people  as  remain, 
Few  head  men  remain. 
Only  til  is  can  we  do. 
And  they  say  how  the  people  should  act. 
Of  the  head  men  and  their  cousins  only  so  many  are  left, 
[But  they  with  |  the  men  and  the  women 
The  children  that  run  and  the  children  that  creep 
As  one  man-being  offer  you  thanks. 
They  are  your  descendants. 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky ! 
Now  you   did   think   that   we   should  offer  you  tobacco   when  we 

addressed  you. 
And  we  have  fulfilled  your  request  and  used  tobacco. 
We  leave  our  words  with  you  until  the  next  great  thanksgiving, 
Lentil  then  may  the  people  continue  in  health. 
Now  the  smoke  arises ! 
Oh  inhale  as  you  do  listen ! 
Only  this  can  we  do 
For  all  the  words  are  spoken 
To  you,  our  great  ancestor, 
Oh  you  who  dwell  in  the  sky. 
Oh  you  who  were  born  of  Earth  ! 

NE  ganeowqI 

One  of  the   four  sacred  ceremonies  of   the   Seneca 
The    Gane'o"wo"    is    a    ceremonial    thanksgiving    in    which    two 
'■  l)reachers,"  standing  on  either  side  of  a  long  bench  around  which 
a    co'.rpany    of    religious    dancers    have    arranged    themselves,    al- 
ternately intone  sections  of  the  Gane'o"wo"  ritual.     At  the  end  of 

1  Ne"gane'o"\vo",    recorded  and  translated   at  Newtown,  Cattaraugus  reser- 
vation, January  1906. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  95 

each  section  the  speaker  starts  a  chant  which  is  taken  up  by  the 
singers  who  sit  on  the  benches.  A  drummer  keeps  time  by  beating 
a  water  drum  and  the  dancers  gracefully  circle  around  the  benches. 
The  direction  of  this  dance,  as  all  Iroquois  dances,  is  counterclock- 
wise. When  the  chant  and  dance  have  continued  a  period  deemed 
sufficient  by  the  opposite  speaker,  he  halts  the  singing  and  dancing 
by  the  exclamation  "  (iwi''y;V ! '"  and  then  commences  his  in- 

The  writer  had  recorded  the  entire  Gane'o"wo"  ritual,  speeches 
and  songs,  on  a  set  of  phonograph  records,  especially  for  preserva- 
tion by  the  New  York  State  Education  Department.  Unfortunately 
these  perished  in  the  Capitol  fire  of  March  29,  191 1.  About  icx) 
other  ceremonial  records  on  wax  cylinders  were  also  destroyed  at 
that  time. 

[preliminary]    translation    of   the   ganeowo    ritual   of   the 


I    Gwi''ya' ! 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks ! 

This  day   [there]   is  occurring  what  the  Creator  has  made 

pleasing  for  his  own  self. 
We  are  thankful  that  what  he  has  made   for  himself   is 

[Singing  and  dancing]. 

II     Gwi"ya' !     [Singing  and   dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks ! 

The  Creator  thought  that  there  should  be  men-beings, 

And  he  thought  that  there  should  be  chiefs  to  regulate  the 

actions  of  these  men-beings. 
So  now  we  thank  him  that  what  he  thought  has  come  to 

[Singing  and  dancing  are  resumed]. 

Ill     Gwi''ya' !     [Singing  and  dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks ! 

Now  he  thought  that  there  should  be  two  sexes, 

That  one  should  be  the  female 

That  children  might  grow  from  her. 

We  thank  the  women  that  they  are  doing  their  duty  in 

fulfilling  the  design  of  their  creation. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 


IV    Gwi''ya" !     [Singing  and  dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  asseml)lage  is  offering  thanks ! 

He  thought  that  there  should  he  a  difference  \\\  the  length 

of  lives, 
And  that  children  should  run  about  and  some  creep. 
So  this  is  what  he  has  done. 
We  are  thankful  that  this  is  fulfilled. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

\'     Gwi''ya" !  [Singing  and  dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks ! 

He  thought  that  certain  ones  should  be  the  leaders  of  the 

The  same  for  both  male  and  female,  to  preserve  the  four 

So  we  thank  these  head  ones  that  they  are  dutiful  to  the 

calling  of  their  Creator. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

AT     Gwi'^yaT  [Singing  and  dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks! 

He  thought  that  there  should  be  a  world  and  that  peojile 

should  be  upon  the  world, 
That  they  should  draw  their  sustenance  from  tlie  world. 
So  we  thank  the  Creator  that  what  he  thought  has  come 

to  pass. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

\TI     Gwi''ya' !     [Singing  and  dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks ! 

He  thought  that  there  should  be  things  in  the  world   for 

And  that  people  should  labor  for  their  sustenance. 
Now  we  petition  the  Creator  that  we  may  again  see  the 

season  of  things  growing  from  which  our  living  is. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

Vni     Gwi'^ya' !  |  Singing  and  dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks ! 
He  thought  that  there  should  be  herbs  of  dift'erent  kinds 
And  that  these  should  grow  when  the  earth  is  warm 
And  that  these  herbs  should  be  a  help  to  the  people  when 
medicine  was  needed. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  97 

So   we   thank   the   Creator  that   what   he   thought   is   now 

I  Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

IX     G\vi''ya'!     [Singing  and   dancing   stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemljhige  is  offering  thanks! 

He  thought  that  there  should  he  two  different  varieties  of 

trees  and  that  one  should  yield  fruit. 
Now  the  first  fruit  of  the  year  is  the  strawberry 
And  he  thought  that   when   the  strawberries  are   ripe  his 

creatures  should  thank  him. 
Thank  him  in  a  great  feast  and  dance  ceremony. 
Now  I  ask  that  the  time  of  strawberries  may  return  again. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

X     Gwi''ya' !     |  Singing  and   dancing  stop|. 
Now  the  whole  assemblage  oft'ers  thanks ! 
He  thought  that  there  should  be  trees  for  a  help  to  the 

people  of  earth. 
So  now  we  thank  the  Creator  because  what  he  thought  is 

fulfilled  and  is  a  help  to  the  peo|)le. 
I  Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

XI     Gwi''ya'!     [Singing  and   dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  offers  thanks! 

He  thought  that  there  should  be  a  certain  tree  to  bear 

So  we  are  thankful  that  all  things  are  that  he  has  or- 

And  shall  be  as  long  as  the  world  endures. 

I  Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

XII     Gwi''ya" !     [Singing  and   dancing   stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks ! 

He  thought  that  there  should  be   forests  upon  the  earth 

That  these  should  be  a  help  to  the  people  of  earth. 

So  we  thank  the  Creator  that  what  he  thought  has  come  to 

[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

XIII     Gwi"'ya" !     [Singing  and  dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks  ! 
He  thought  that  there  should  l)e  a  certain  tree 


From   which    sweet   waters    should   flow    when   the   earth 

That  this  tree  should  l)e  the  mafile  and  that  men-beings 

should  tap  it, 
And  that  this  should  he  a  help  to  the  people. 
So  we  thank  the  Creator  that  what  he  thought  is  occurring. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

XIV     Gwi''ya' !     [Singing  and  dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  entire  assemblage  is  ottering  thanks ! 

He  thought  that  there  should  be  a  certain  tree  to  yield 

So  we  are  thankful  that  what  he  thought  is  so. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

XV    Gwi"ya' !     [vSinging  and  dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks ! 

He  thought  that  he  would  create  wild  beasts 

And  that  men-beings  should  derive  benefits  from  them. 

So  we  thank  the  Creator  that  they  are  [yet]  for  our  help. 

[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

X\T     Gwi''ya" !     [Singing  and  dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  otTering  thanks ! 

He  thought  that  there  should  be  certain  ones  who  should 

be  his  servants, 
And  that  they  should  come  from  the  west  and  care  for 

the  world, 
That  they  should  cause  the  earth  to  become  wet 
Thereby  feeding  the  springs  and  waters  that  flow 
Moreover  that  they  should  be  called   Hadiwennoda'die's, 

the  Thunderers. 
So  we  thank  the  Creator  that  they  ha\e  always   fulfilled 

the  purpose  of  their  creation. 
Now  we  put  everything  together  and  say 
We  are  thankful  that  all  things  are  doing  that  for  which 

they  were  created. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

XVn     Gwi''ya'!     [Singing  and  dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  ofl^ering  thanks ! 
He  thought  that  there  should  be  a  sky  over  head ; 
He  thought  that  there  should  be  stars  in  that  sky 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  99 

That  the  men-beings  that  he  put  upon  the  earth  might  be 

guided  thereby  ; 
That  certain  stars  should  guide  the  people. 
So  we  thank  the  Creator  that  what  he  thought  is  so. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

K^VIII     Gwi''ya'!     [Singing  and  dancing  stopj. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks! 
Now  he  thought  that  there  should  be  a  certain  one  in  the 

And  that  he  should  give  light  a  certain  period  of  time 
And    that    they    should    call    him    "our    brother,    ende'- 

ka  ga'akwa','" 
Now,  as  we  are  all  gathered  together,  we  thank  the  sun 

that  he  is  eternally  dutiful. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

TX     Gwi''ya'!     [Singing  and   dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks  ! 

He  thought  that  there  should  be  another  in  the  heavens 

Who  should  reveal  itself  when  the  sun  went  under 

And  that  people  should  callit  akso'ot,  our  grandmother, 

Now,  as  we  are  all  gathered  together,  we  thank  the  moon 

that  she  is  eternally  dutiful. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed  | . 

XX     Gwi''ya'!     [Singing  and   dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  ottering  thanks ! 

He  thought  that  there  must  be  a  certain  one  who  should 

reveal  what  he  thought. 
He  thought   that  he  should   lay   the   Gai'wiio'   before   the 

So  he  revealed  the  Gai'wiio'  to  Ganio'dai'io' 
And  he  did  his  duty  as  the  Creator  had  ordained, 
He  preached  and  taught  until  he  died. 
So  we  all  render  our  thanks  for  he  has  done  his  duly 
For  we  now  follow  in  the  way  he  taught 
And  we  will  remember  forever. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

XXI     Gwi''ya'!     [Singing  and   dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks! 

100  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

He  thought  that  he  should  have  four  beings  for  his  mes- 

Who  should  watch  over  the  people  of  earth  and  that  on 
their  strength  their  living  should  be. 

Now  we  thank  the  four  messengers  that  they  are  faithful 
to  the  design  of  their  creation. 

[Singing  and  dancing  resumedj. 

XXII     Gwi''ya'!     [Singing  and  dancing  stop]. 

Now  the  whole  assemblage  is  offering  thanks! 

He   thought   that   the   people   should   commence   with   the 

lower  earth  to  thank  him 
For  all  that  he  had  created  and  should  offer  thanks  fui 

things  from  below  up  to  himself  in  the  high  world. 
We  therefore,  gathered  together  in  this  assemblage,  thank 

our  Creator, 
Yea  all  of  his  creatures  who  are  living  in  this  world. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 

XXIII    Gwi"ya'!    [Singing  and  dancing  stop]. 
Now  all  the  people  offer  thanks ! 
He  thought  that  there  should  be  certain  persons  to  sin; 

for  the  dances  he  had  made. 
Now  you  who  have  sung  and  are  singing,  we  thank  you. 
[Singing  and  dancing  resumed]. 
[Speaker  exhorts  all  the  people  to  join  in  the  dance]. 




AN      OUTLINE      PROGRAM      OF      WAAN0''NA0GWA''CI0T,      THE      CORN- 

1  Opening  address  by  a  chief 

2  A  Thanksgiving  speech 

3  Ne"aska'nie',  the  women's  dance 

4  Ne''ga'da'ciot,  the  jubilee  dance 

5  Ne'^gusshedon'dada",  the  jug  shaking  dance 

6  Ne''askan'ie',  the  women's  dance 

7  Ne"yiendonesshonta',  the  old  women's  song 

8  Ne"aska'nie',  the  women's  dance 

9  Ne"gaianon'gayo°ka 

10  Ne''osto'wago'wa,  the  great  feather  dance 

11  Closing  address 

12  Distribution  of  the  feast 

The  object  of  the  Cornplanting  ceremony  is  to  secure  divine 
favor  and  help  in  the  spring  planting.  Everyone  is  invoked  to  till 
the  ground  and  earn  the  bread  they  eat.  The  ceremony  lasts  about 
four  or  five  hours. 


A  council  is  called  to  set  the  time  for  this  festival  which  has  no 
exact  day  but  varies  according  to  the  weather.  However,  it  takes 
place  soon  after  the  sap  commences  to  run.  Its  object  is  to  thank 
all  trees  for  their  services  to  man  and  invoke  their  protection  and 
good  will  for  the  coming  year. 

Outline  program 

.  I  The  address  to  the  maple  tree.  A  fire  is  built  at  the  foot  of  a 
large  maple  tree.  The  people  gather  around  and  a  special  officer 
advances  with  a  basket  of  tobacco  which  he  sprinkles  on  the  fire 
as  he  recites  the  address  to  the  maple : 

Ne'  no"ga'    giigwa'ani  saiwisa'ane  gani'se  swen'iio' 
Seane   ganiga'o   ne"niganigai'isek 
One"  diq'   oyan'kwa(owe)so!'ye' 
Negihedahadondi   gaiyehonoshas  henizaiwissaho"' 
One""    diq'   kejedai'    songwani,   etc. 

102  i\EW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

The  prayer  at  the  maple  festival 

\Va''da   Tadinion'nio'o' 
A]  aple   Thanksgiving 

Es"\vaiyTg\va'sho\vi  ne''  odeha'donni.  Ne"wainnondoi'shonk 

Oh  partake  of  this  tobacco  the  forests.  This  we  petition 

nega'doga  nayut'dao"  njietgone'igais  nawa''da 
may  you  continue  the  production  of  sweet  water  Oh  maple 
Hawe'o"  Nawenniio'  e"gao"dadegao"  e"gani'gaiksek 
The  will  of  the  Creator  that  a  certain  tree  water  flows  from 
Ne''ne"ga'  e"ga'ohk  hadieo"sha  deod()"o"  ne''  he''hadiduk'keno"dies 
This  it         may  not    accidents       occur        the    running  about 
hadiksa'sho°'o'  gahadegon"sho° 
the  children       in  the  woods. 

Xe"'  ne"ga''  wanTshade"  Is'  esswai'ya'dagwani'yothet 

Xow  this  day        you        it  belongs  to  you  to  enjoy 

ue"ga''  wamshiide'. 
this  day. 

JJjasayawa'goduk   liawen'iio'  cia''dade  giloya'ge'tciojo''. 

We  give  thanks    oh  (lod    to  you    the  dweller  of  the  heavens. 

Agwai'wayiis         ne''gaiyiwanda'kho. 

We  have  done  it         what  devolved  upon  us. 

Osut'gat'ho         djogwutgwc'uio'. 

You  have  seen         what  we  have  done. 


So,  it  is. 

llie  address  to  the  maple,  the  chief  of  trees  and  the  prayer  to  the' 


A  Seneca  ceremony 

The  priest  stands  at  the  roots  of  a  maple.     A  fire  is  burning  and 
the  priest  casts  tobacco  in  the  fire  and  as  its  smoke  arises  he  says : 

To  the  tree : 

"  O  partake  of  this  incense, 
You  the  forests ! 
We  implore  you 
To  continue  as  before. 
The  flowing  waters  of  the  maple. 


To  the  Creator  and  the  tree : 

It  is  the  will  of  the  Creator 

That  a  certain  tree 

Should  flow  such   water. 

Now  may  no  accidents  occur 

To  children  roaming  in  the  forests. 

Now  this  day  is  yours 

May  you  enjoy  it, —  this  day. 

To  the  Creator : 

We  give  thanks,  oh  ( iod,  to  you, 
You  who  dwell  in  licavcn. 
We  have  done  our  duly 
You  have  seen  us  do  it. 
So  it  is  done." 


I  Da'nondinoimio''  hMe'kwa  gaa'kwa',  the  Sun  Dance. 

II  Da'nondinonnio''  Soi'ka  gaa'kwa',  the  Moon  Dance. 

III  Wasaze/  the  Thunder  Dance. 


1  Da'nondinonnio''  Ende'ka  g;i;i'kwa',  tlie  .Sun  dance,  is  designed 
to  honor  the  sun. 

2  This  ceremony  has  no  certain  time  for  its  celebration  ])ul  may 
be  called  by  anyone,  at  any  time,  wIkj  dreams  it  necessary  for  the 
welfare  of  the  settlement. 

3  The  ceremony  begins  at  noon  wlicn  arrows  are  shot  uj)  toward 
the  sun  while  the  populace  shout  their  war  cries. 

4  A  fire  is  built  outside  and  toljacco  is  thrown  l)y  a  priest  who 
chants  the  sun-rite. 

5  Three  times  during  this  ceremony  a  shower  of  arrows  are 
shot  up  to  the  sun  accompanied  by  a  chorus  of  cries,  intended  to 
notify  him  that  they  are  addressing  him. 

6  Immediately  afterward  the  Osto'wagowa  is  engaged  in  as  the 
only  fitting  dance  to  perform  before  the  mighty  Sun. 


I  Da'nondinonnio"  Soikagaa'kwa',  the  Moon  Dance  ceremony. 
is  convened  by  anyone  who  dreams  it  necessary  or  by  the  advice  of 
a  clairvoyant. 

^  Meaning,  Dakota,  or  Sioux. 

104  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

2  A  thanksgiving  speech  is  recited  by  a  chief  while  he  burns  the 
tobacco  offering  to  the  moon. 

3  As  the  peach  stone  gambhng  game  is  thought  especially  pleas- 
ing to  the  moon,  the  conij^any  gambles  away  the  evening. 

4  The  distribution  of  the  feast  terminates  the  ceremony. 


1  Wasaze,   the   Thunder   Dance,   is   one   designed   to   please   the 
spirit  of  Thunder,  Hi'^no". 

2  A  council  is  called  when  the  first  thunder  of  the  year  is  heard 
and  a  time  as  immediate  as  possible  set  for  the  Wasaze. 

3  The  dancers  assemble  without  the  council  house,  an  opening 
address  is  made  by  a  priest  or  chief  and  the  dance  immediately 

4  The  line  of  dancers  dance  into  the  long  house. 

5  Hi"no"  is  supposed  to  delight  in  war  songs  and  these  are  sung 
to  please  him. 

6  Tobacco  is  burned  and  a  thanksgiving  speech  made  to  Hi''no", 
for  his  services  in  the  past  and  he  is  prayed  to  continue  his  favors. 



When  the  world  was  first  made,  men-beings  did  not  know  that 
they  must  die  some  time.  In  those  days  everyone  was  happy  and 
neither  men,  women  nor  children  were  afraid  of  anything.  They 
did  not  think  of  anything  but  doing  what  pleased  them.  At  one 
time,  in  those  days,  a  prominent  man  was  found  on  the  grass.  He 
was  limp  and  had  no  breath.  He  did  not  breathe.  The  men-beings 
that  saw  him  did  not  know  what  had  happened.  The  man  was  not 
asleep  because  he  did  not  awaken.  When  they  placed  him  on  his 
feet  he  fell  like  a  tanned  skin.  He  was  limp.  They  tried  many 
days  to  make  him  stand  but  he  would  not.  After  a  number  of  days 
he  became  offensive. 

A  female  man-being  said  that  the  man  must  be  wrapped  up  and 
put  in  the  limbs  of  a  tree.  So  the  men  did  so  and  after  a  while  the 
flesh  dropped  from  the  bones  and  some  dried  on.  No  one  knew 
what  had  happened  to  cause  such  a  thing. 

Soon  afterward  a  child  was  found  in  the  same  condition.  It  had 
no  breath.  It  could  not  stand.  It  was  not  asleep,  so  they  said. 
The  men-beings  thought  it  was  strange  that  a  girl  man-beinc:  should 
act  this  wise.  So  she  was  laid  in  a  tree.  Now  manv  others  did 
these  things  and  no  one  knew  why.  No  one  thought  that  be  him- 
self would  do  such  a  thing. 

There  was  one  wise  man  who  thought  much  about  these  thing'^ 
and  he  had  a  dream.  When  he  slept  the  Good  Minded  spirit  came 
to  him  and  spoke.  He  slept  a  long  time  but  the  other  men-beings 
noticed  that  he  breathed  slowly.  He  breathed  [nevertheless]. 
Now  after  a  tiiue  this  man  rose  up  and  his  face  was  verv  solemn. 
He  called  the  people  together  in  a  council  and  addressed  the  people. 
The  head  men  all  sat  around  with  the  people. 

The  wise  man  spoke  and  he  said,  "  The  Good  Minded  spirit  made 
every  good  thing  and  prepared  the  earth  for  men-beings.  Now  it 
appears  that  strange  events  have  happened.  A  good  word  has 
come  to  me  from  the  Good  Minded  spirit.  He  says  that  every 
person  must  do  as  you  have  seen  the  other  persons  do.  They  have 
died.  Thev  do  not  breathe.  It  will  be  the  same  with  all  of  you. 
Your  minds  are  strong.  The  Good  Minded  spirit  made  them  that 
wav  so  that  vou  could  endure  everything  that  happened.  So  then 
do  not  be  downcast  when  I  tell  vou  that  vou  all  must  die.     Listen 

1  Related  by  Edward  Cornplanter,  March    1906. 


further  to  what  I  say.    The  name  of  the  one  that  steals  away  your 
breath  is  S'hondowek'owa.     He  has  no  face  and  does  not  see  any 
one.     You  can  not  see  him  until  he  gras])s  you.     He  comes  some- 
times for  a  visit  and  sometimes  he  stays  with  us  until  many  are 
dead.     Sometimes  he  takes   away   the  best  men   and   women   and 
passes  by  the  lesser  ones.     I  was  not  told  why  he  does  this  thini;. 
He  wants  to  destroy  every  person.     He  will  continue  to  work  fo' 
ever.     Every  one  who  hears  me  and  every  one  not  yet  born  wi! 
die.    There  is  more  about  you  than  living.    Any  moment  vou  may  1 
snatched  by  S'hondowek'owa,  he  who  works  in  the  thick  darkne> 
You  must  now  divide  yourselves  into  nine  bands,  five  to  sit  n; 
one  side  of  the  fire  and  four  on  the  other  and  these  bands  shall 
care  for  its  members.     You  must  seek  out  all  good  things  and  ii 
struct  one  another,  and  those  who  do  good  things  will  see  when  the 
(lie  the  place  where  the  Maker  of  all  things  lives." 


Aweyondo'   Gavven'notga'o 

Now  all  hearken  to  what  must  be  said ! 

We  are  gathered  here  because  of  what  our  Creator  has  done. 
He  made  it  so  that  people  should  live  only  a  certain  length  of  time- 
none  to  be  more  favored  th,an  another. 

Now  our  uncles  made  provisions  for  this  event,  and  our  grand- 
fathers and  the  chiefs  when  they  first  thought  of  this  thing  [deathj 
in  those  days.  They  had  never  seen  death  [before].  Their  first 
knowledge  came  when  they  saw  a  person  in  an  assembly  die. 
[Strangely]  no  one  was  surprised.  Soon  afterwards  they  saw  an- 
other death  in  the  manner  of  the  first.  Soon  again  another  died. 
Then  did  the  chiefs  consider  the  matter,  saying,  "  We  were  nut 
born  to  live  forever."  Then  did  the  people  see  that  they  were  not 
to  live  forever  but  only  for  a  certain  period  of  time.  Therefore, 
they  made  certain  rules.  Then  did  they  divide  the  people  into  clans, 
kashadenioh.  Then  did  they  divide  the  clans  into  two  divisions. 
Now  when  a  death  occurred  the  other  division  [phratryj  was  to 
officiate  at  the  funeral.  The  side  that  lost  one  of  its  members  must 
quietly  mourn  and  say  nothing.  The  cousins  must  do  the  speaking. 
They  must  speak  telling  the  mourners  what  they  must  think.  So 
now  first  they  should  say,  "  Keep  your  minds  up."' 

The  preacher  then  turns  to  the  mourners  and  addresses  iheni  as 
follows  : 

There  are  many  of  your  own  relations  yet  remaining,  there  arc 
old  folk  and  there  are  children.  So  let  these  lift  up  your  minds. 
Moreover  here  is  the  earth  upon  which  we  tread,  everything  upon 
it  is  for  our  comfort.  There  is  water,  springs  of  water  and  streams 
of  water  flowing  over  the  earth.  There  are  ditTerent  plants  and 
trees.  All  of  these  our  Creator  has  given  us.  So  let  this  lift  uj) 
your  minds. 

So  now  then  another. 

There  is  the  sky  above  our  heads.  There  are  many  things  there. 
In  the  forms  of  the  stars  are  signs  to  guide  us.  The  sun  gives  us 
light.  The  moon  gives  us  light.  She  is  our  grantlmother.  The 
sun  is  our  brother.  All  these  are  performing  that  for  which  they 
were  created.     So  let  this  lift  up  your  minds. 

So  now  then  another. 

1  Related  by   Skidmore  Lay,   Cattaraugus  chief,   March   1906. 


It  is  the  Gai'wiio',  the  good  word  of  our  Creator.  Our  Creator 
thought  that  the  people  should  hear  what  was  in  his  mind.  So  he 
sent  word  down  to  the  earth.  He  thought  that  the  people  should 
know  what  his  words  were.    Now  this  should  lift  up  your  minds. 

So  now  then  another. 

It  is  the  four  geniewage  [ceremonies].  Now  this  should  lift  up 
your  minds. 

[If  the  dead  person  is  a  chief  tiie  preacher  here  ceases  to  give 
the  chief  on  the  mourning  side  an  opportunity  to  reply.  The  reply 
is  as  follows]  : 

Cousin !  I  have  heard  all  that  you  have  laid  before  us  —  how  we 
should  keep  our  minds.  We  have  commenced  from  the  beginning 
of  the  world  when  the  Creator  made  us.  "  We  have  thought  of  the 
water,  the  springs  and  the  streams  of  water.  We  have  thought  of 
the  sky  and  everything  therein,  the  sun  and  the  moon,  the  words  of 
our  Creator  and  the  four  ceremonies.  These  things  you  have 
pointed  out.  Oh  Cousin !  These  things  will  lift  up  our  minds. 
Now,  Cousin,  you  should  know  that  we  accept  all  that  you  have 
said.  We  can  not  say  that  we  do  not  accept  what  you  have  said. 
Now  we  put  all  of  your  words  together ;  we  accept  them  all.  So  is 
the  reply, 

[The  preacher  then  arises  and  continues]  : 

So  now  again  listen,  all  of  you ! 

Now  let  every  one  listen. 

[The  preacher  makes  an  extemporaneous  speech  in  which  he 
addresses  the  entire  assembly.  Afterward  he  selects  passages  from 
the  Gai'wiio'  among  which  the  following  is  always  repeated]  : 

So  now  another  message. 

Now  it  is  said  that  your  people  must  change  certain  customs.  It 
has  been  the  custom  to  mourn  at  each  recurring  anniversary  of  the 
death  of  a  friend  or  relative.  It  is  said  that  while  you  are  on 
earth  you  do  not  realize  the  harm  that  this  works  upon  the  departed. 

[Now  moreover,  it  is  said  that  wiien  an  infant  is  born  upon  the 
earth  with  which  the  parents  are  dissatisfied  it  knows  and  says, 
"  I  will  return  to  my  home  above  the  earth."] 

Now  it  is  said  that  grief  adds  to  the  sorrows  of  the  dead.  It  is 
said  that  it  is  not  possible  to  grieve  always.  Ten  days  shall  be  the 
time  for  mourning  and  when  our  friends  depart  we  must  lay  grief 
aside.  When  you,  the  beings  of  the  earth,  lose  one  of  your  number 
you  must  bury  your  grief  in  their  grave.  Some  will  die  today  and 
some  tomorrow,  for  all  our  days  are  numbered.     So  hereafter  do 


not  grieve.  Now  it  is  said  that  when  the  ten  days  have  elapsed 
to  prepare  a  feast  and  the  soul  of  the  dead  will  return  and  partake 
of  it  with  you.  It  is  said  moreover  that  you  can  journey  with  the 
dead  only  as  far  as  the  grave.  It  is  said  that  when  you  follow  a 
body  to  the  grave  you  must  have  prepared  for  that  journey  as  if 
to  travel  afar.  Put  on  }our  finest  clothing  for  every  human  crea- 
ture is  on  its  journey  graveward.  It  is  said  that  the  bodies  of  the 
dead  have  intelligence  and  know  what  transpires  about  them.  It 
is  true. 

So  they  said  and  lie  saitl.  Mniaiehuk.  (  Section  67  of  the 

[The  preacher  then  announces  certain  decisions  of  "  the  dead 
side "  and  then  continues  with  the  established  funeral  rite,  as 
follows]  : 

When  the  body  of  the  dead  is  buried  we  must  become  resigned 
to  our  loss.    It  can  not  be  helped. 

[The  preacher  speaks  to  the  fathers]  : 

Now  do  you  also  do  the  same  as  the  dead  side  and  become  re- 
signed to  your  sorrow  ? 

[The  preacher  addresses  the  relatives  afar  off]  : 

And  now  you  afar  off  who  are  the  relatives  of  the  dead,,  do  you 
become  resigned  also  when  you  hear  of  the  loss? 

The  things  of  the  past  shall  continue.  It  [death]  should  not 
hamper  or  stop  any  ordination  of  the  Creator.  Let  not  a  death 
stop  an  event  in  course  of  progress.  Let  us  fulfil  the  law  of  mourn- 
ing for  a  ten-day  period  and  have  the  feast  at  the  end.  We  believe 
that  the  dead  will  return  at  the  end  of  ten  days.  Now  the  Creator 
said,  "  The  customs  ordained  by  the  early  chiefs  [regarding 
mourning]  are  right.  They  had  no  knowledge  of  what  would 
happen  in  the  future  when  they  made  the  customs  but  the  Creator 
soke  to  Ganio'dai'io  and  said,  '  True  and  good  is  the  ceremony  of 
your  grandfathers  for  the  time  of  mourning  and  also  the  death 
feast.'  " 

[When  the  face  of  the  dead  is  unwrapped  for  its  friends  to  look 
upon  for  the  last  time  the  preacher  says]  : 

Now  let  all  journey  to  the  grave  with  the  body  of  the  dead  for 
it  is  as  far  as  we  can  go. 

[At  the  grave  the  preacher  turns  to  the  crowd  and  says]  : 

So  now  we  thank  all  those  who  have  come  to  this  funeral  cere- 
mony to  help  us.     So  it  is  done. 

[The  body  is  then  covered  with  earth.] 

110  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 


Now  let  all  listen,  all  ye  who  are  here  assembled ! 

Cousins!  We  all  are  familiar  with  the  happening  of  a  few  days 
ago.  We  are  [therefore]  here  because  of  what  the  Creator  has 

Now  the  relatives  have  made  arrangements.  They  have  prom- 
ised to  obey  the  commands  of  llic  four  messengers  who  said,  "  It  is 
right  to  have  a  feast  for  the  dead.  Therefore  this  tiling  should  be 

Ten  days  ha\e  passed.  Now  the  relatives  of  the  dead  have  made 
preparations  and  the  feast  is  ready  for  the  dead.  Now  let  this  be 
in  your  minds,  all  ye  who  are  here  present. 

[The  preacher  here  pauses.  At  his  side  sits  the  speaker  for  the 
mourners.  In  his  charge  is  a  bundle  containing  various  gifts  for 
those  who  have  aided  the  bereaved  family.  The  speaker  has  been 
told  to  whom  the  various  presents  are  to  go,  and  as  the  preacher 
pauses  and  bends  down  to  receive  the  formal  instructions  he  hands 
him  the  first  gift.  Sitting  among  the  women  mourners  is  a  woman, 
the  "  mistress  of  the  ceremonies,"  whose  duty  is  to  deliver  the 
gifts  to  the  intended  recipients. 

After  listening  to  the  directions  of  the  speaker  the  preacher  re- 
sumes] : 

So  now  the  bereaved  offer  thanks.  They  thank  the  one  wdio 
cared  for  the  body  of  the  dead  and  dressed  it  for  burial.  To  that 
one  they  give  this  as  a  testimony.  |  The  preacher  names  the  ar- 
ticle and  the  matron  rising  from  her  seat  receives  it  and  delivers  it 
to  the  person  named]. 

[The  preacher  again  bends  to  the  speaker  at  his  side  and  receives 
the  "  second  word."     Again  facing  the  audience  he  proceeds]  : 

So  now  of  another  they  have  thought.  It  is  of  the  night  watcher 
[or  night  watchers].  To  this  one  [or  to  these  ones],  they  give  this 
roll  of  cloth  [or  skins].     And  this  is  your  thanks. 

[The  speaker  hands  the  preacher  the  roll  and  he  hands  it  to  the 
matron  who  delivers  it.  Stooping  and  listening  to  the  whispered 
instructions  for  the  delivery  of  the  next  gift,  the  preacher  after 
making  sure  that  he  understands   straightens  and   again  speaks]  : 

1  Related  by  Edward  Cornplanter.  March  1906. 


Now  to  him  who  wrapped  the  body  in  its  burial  covering  [or 
made  the  coffin],  the  relatives  offer  thanks. 

[The  gift  is  bestowed  as  previously  described.] 

Now  the  matron  who  has  managed  the  funeral  receives  a  gift 
of  thanks. 

[This  named  person  l)eing  the  one  who  has  first  received  and 
given  the  gifts  now  remains  seated  while  the  wife  or  sister  of  the 
preacher  rises  and  receiving  the  gift  bestows  it.  According  to 
Iroquois  etiquette  it  would  be  an  improper  thing  for  the  matron  to 
receive  her  own  gift  and  bear  it  before  the  eyes  of  the  crowd  to 
her  seat.  The  recipients  are  supposed  not  to  be  eager  to  receive 
the  gifts,  the  things  that  once  belonged  to  the  dead.  Besides  ac- 
cording to  Irocjuois  philosophy  one  can  not  give  one's  self  a  thing.] 

Now  she  who  notified  the  people  —  the  relatives  desire  to  give 
thanks  and  offer  this  gift. 

Now  those  who  dug  the  grave  —  to  you  the  relatives  give  thanks 
and  ofifer  gifts. 

And  now  you  the  good  friends  and  relatives,  of  what  is  remaining 
receive  you  this  gift.  [The  preacher  names  each  person  for  whom 
a  gift  is  intended,  repeating  the  formula  given.  If  property  of 
considerable  value  as  live  stock  or  lands  is  left,  the  speaker  for  the 
mourners  in  behalf  of  the  council  of  heirs  tells  the  preacher  their 
decisions  and  they  are  announced  before  the  audience.  The  modern 
"  death  feast  law  "  provides  that  in  the  event  of  a  man's  death  his 
property  must  go  to  his  children.  Tf  he  is  without  issue,  then  it 
reverts  to  his  wife.  If  he  was  un  rarried  it  was  given  to  the 
nearest  of  kin.  The  law  further  ])rovides  that  the  property  must 
be  divided  and  apportioned  at  the  "  death  feast."  By  the  old  law 
the  nearest  of  kin  on  the  clan  (niaternan  side  received  the  prop- 
erty. Children  did  not  ordinarily  inherit  their  father's  property, 
but  their  mother's.  Their  "  mother's  husband's  "  belongings  went 
to  the  kin  of  the  clan  to  which  he  belonged.] 

[If  the  dead  were  an  officer  of  any  kind,  the  preacher  announced 
who  was  to  take  his  or  her  place.  In  order  that  this  election  be 
valid  the  person  chosen  must  stand,  if  possible,  in  the  very  spot 
where  the  dead  person  expired.] 

Now  I  have  finished  speaking  for  the  relatives. 

Now  listen  to  another  matter,  all  ye  who  are  here  ])resent. 

Now  at  this  time  let  the  [mourning]  relatives  cease  their  grieving. 
Now  may  they  go  and  do  whatsoever  they  wish.  They  are  the 
same  as  ever  and  may  speak  as  they  please  again.     Now  can  they 


be  notified  of  things  to  be  done.  They  have  now  the  right  to 
engage  in  any  current  happening.  No  longer  think  their  hands 
must  be  held  back.  If  it  is  possible  to  do,  now  do,  for  the  time  of 
mourning  has  passed. 

So  now  we  have  done  our  part  for  you,  cousins.     So  I  have  done. 

[The  preacher  resumes  his  seat.] 

[The  speaker  for  the  mourning  side  arises  and  addresses  the  offi- 
ciating side]  : 

Now  listen  cousins ! 

We  have  heard  all  that  you  have  said  and  |  know  that]  you  have 
done  your  part.  We  believe  that  you  have  done  your  part.  You 
must  hold  in  your  minds  that  we  thank  you  for  what  you  have  done 
for  us.    Now  I  give  you  this  [the  object  is  named]  for  your  trouble. 

[Although  the  speaker  is  standing  at  the  side  of  the  preacher, 
the  latter  can  not  receive  the  gift  direct,  but  the  matron  rising  from 
her  seat  takes  the  offering  and  holds  it  out  to  him.  Even  then  he 
does  not  take  it  but  points  to  his  wife  or  mother,  indicating  that  it 
is  to  be  placed  in  her  keeping.] 

[The  speaker  continues]  : 

Now  we  must  ask  your  pardon  for  giving  so  small  a  gift ;  it  is 
small  and  your  services  have  been  great. 

Now  we  relieve  you  of  your  duties,  the  duties  for  which  we 
bound  you.     Now  you  are  relieved. 

[The  preacher  rises  and  says]  : 

Now  all  listen  to  a  few  more  words  that  I  shall  say ! 

Let  all  the  people  here  gathered  keep  silent.  Now  is  the  time 
for  the  distribution  of  the  feast.  It  will  now  be  distributed,  for  it 
has  been  prejiared  and  we  must  eat.  Now  let  they  who  did  the 
cooking  distribute.  Let  all  tarry  until  the  feast  is  finished.  Let 
hard  feelings  affect  no  one  and  let  the  matrons  divide  equally  and 
overlook  none.     So  it  is  finished. 



During  the  last  six  years  the  writer  has  made  a  detailed  field 
study  of  the  various  phases  of  Iroquois  culture,  special  attention 
being  directed  to  the  rites  and  ceremonies  of  the  semisecret  orders 
and  societies  that  yet  survive  among  the  so-called  pagan  Iroquois. 
It  was  only  after  diligent  inquiry  that  the  actual  existence  of  these 
societies  was  clearly  established.  The  False  Face  Company  and  the 
Secret  Medicine  Society,  better  termed  The  Little  Water  Company, 
have  been  known  to  ethnologists  for  some  time,  but  no  one  has  ade- 
quately described  them  or  has  seemed  fully  aware  of  their  signifi- 
cance. Likewise  certain  dances,  such  as  the  Bird,  the  Bear,  the 
Bufifalo,  the  Dark,  and  the  Death  dances,  have  been  mentioned. 
Ceremonies  also,  such  as  the  Otter  ceremony  and  the  Woman's 
song,  have  been  listed,  but  that  back  of  all  these  ceremonies  there 
was  a  society  never  seems  to  have  occurred  to  anyone.  The  Indians 
do  not  volunteer  information,  and  when  some  rite  is  mentioned  they 
usually  call  it  a  dance.  Through  this  subterfuge  the  existence  of 
these  societies  has  long  been  concealed,  not  only  from  white  investi- 
gators but  from  Christian  Indians  as  well,  the  latter  usually  pro- 
fessing ignorance  of  the  "  pagan  practices  "  of  their  unprogressive 

Even  so  close  an  observer  as  Lewis  H.  Morgan  says :  "  The 
Senecas  have  lost  their  Medicine  Lodges,  which  fell  out  in  modern 
times ;  but  they  formerly  existed  and  formed  an  important  part  of 
their  religious  system.  To  hold  a  Medicine  Lodge  was  to  observe 
their  highest  religious  mysteries.  They  had  two  such  organiza- 
tions, one  for  each  phratry,  which  shows  still  furtlier  the  natural 
connection  of  the  phratry  and  the  religious  observances.  Very 
little  is  now  known  concerning  these  lodges  or  their  ceremonies. 
Each  was  a  brotherhood  into  which  new  members  were  admitted 
by  formal  initiation."^ 

Morgan's  experience  is  that  of  most  observers,  close  as  their 
observation  may  be.  The  writer,  with  the  assistance  of  his  wife, 
however,  living  with  the  "  pagans  "  and  entering  fully  into  their 
rites,  discovered  that  the  "  medicine  lodges,''  so  far  from  having 
become   extinct,   arc   still   active   organizations,   exercising  a  great 

^  AdaptftI  from  the  autlior's  article  in  American  Anthropologist,  2:2,  April- 
June,   1909. 

2  Morgan,   Ancient   Society,  p.  97.   ed.    1907. 

1 14  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

amount  of  influence  not  only  over  the  pas^ans  but  also  over  the 
nominal  Christians. 

It  was  found  that  the  oro^anization  and  rites  of  the  societies 
might  best  be  studied  among'  the  vSencca,  who  have  preserved  their 
rituals  with  great  fidelity.  The  Onondaga,  although  keeping  up 
the  form  of  some,  have  lost  many  of  the  ancient  features  and  look- 
to  the  Seneca  for  the  correct  forms. 

The  teachings  of  Ganio'dai'io',  Handsome  Lake,  the  Seneca 
prophet,  revolutionized  the  religious  life  of  the  Iroquois  to  a  large 
extent,  its  greatest  immediate  effect  being  on  the  Seneca  and  Onon- 
daga. Later  it  greatly  influenced  the  Canadian  Iroquois,  excepting 
perhaps  the  Mohawk  about  the  St  Lawrence.  Handsome  Lake 
sought  to  destro.y  the  ancient  folk-ways  of  the  people  and  to  sub- 
stitute a  new  system,  built  of  course  upon  the  framework  of  the  old. 
Finding  that  he  made  little  headwav  in  his  teachings,  he  sought  to 
destroy  the  societies  and  orders  that  conserved  the  older  religious 
rites,  by  proclaiming  a  revelation  from  the  Creator.  The  divine 
decree  was  a  command  that  all  the  animal  societies  hold  a  final 
meeting  at  a  certain  time,  throw  tobacco  in  the  ceremonial  fires, 
and  dissolve.  The  heavenly  reason  for  this  order.  Handsome  Lake 
explained,  was  that  men  were  acquainted  with  the  efi'ects  of  their 
familiaritv  with  the  spirits  of  the  animals,  which,  although  thev 
might  bring  fortune  and  healing  to  the  members  of  the  animal's 
order,  might  work  terril)le  harm  to  men  and  to  other  animals. 

The  chiefs  who  were  f^-iendly  to  the  prophet  and  others  who 
were  frightened  by  his  threats  met  in  counsel  and  proclaimed  that 
all  the  animal  and  mystcrv  societies  should  immediately  dissolve, 
and,  bv  their  order,  were  dissolved  and  disbanded.  This  they  did 
without  holding  a  hayant'wiitgus,  tobacco-throwing  ceremonv,  as 
directed.  The  members  of  the  societies,  therefore,  declared  that 
the  order  of  the  council  was  illegal  and  not  binding,  that  the  sin  of 
disobedience  was  upon  the  chiefs  and  not  upon  the  body  of  mem- 
bc-s.  The  societies  consequently  continued  their  rites,  although 
thev  found  it  expedient  to  do  so  secretly,  for  they  were  branded  as 
witches  and  wizards,^  and  the  members  of  one  society  at  least  were 
executed  as  sorcerers  when  they  were  found  practising  their  arts. 

The  existence  of  the  societies  became  doubly  veiled.  The  zealous 
proselvtes  of  the  New  Religion  denied  their  legality  and  even  their 
existence,   and   the   adherents   of  the   old   system   did   not   care   to 

■>  The  modern  Tmqunis  call  all  ^nrrcrrrs  and  rnnjurcrs.  regardless  of  sex, 
"  witches."     Thev  never  nse  the  masculine  form. 


express  themselves  too  strongly  in  the  matter  of  proclaiming^  their 
sacred  orders  still  very  much  alive.  The  rites  of  the  societies  were 
performed  in  secret  places  for  a  number  of  years  after  the  advent  of 
the  prophet,  but  as  the  adherents  of  the  New  Religion  became  more 
conservative,  the  societies  again  gradually  entered  into  public  cere- 
monies held  in  the  council  houses  on  thanksgiving  occasions.  At 
such  times  some  of  them  gave  public  exhibitions  of  their  rites  ;  others 
had  no  public  ceremonies  whatsoever.  With  the  gradual  acceptance 
of  the  New  Religion  by  the  great  majority  of  the  people,  the  older 
religious  belief  was  blended  into  the  new.  The  Iroquois  regard  it, 
as  their  Old  Testament.  The  tabooed  societies  became  bolder  in 
their  operations,  and  the  new  religionists  entered  their  folds  with 
few  if  any  qualms. 

It  was  about  this  time  that  their  policy  seems  to  have  changed, 
for  after  some  inquiry  the  writer  can  find  no  restriction  placed  on 
membership  by  reason  of  phratry  or  clanship.  Candidates  might 
join  anv  societv  regardless  of  clan  except  the  society  of  Men-who- 
assist-the-women's-ceremonies.  which  is  not  a  secret  organization. 
This  society  consists  of  two  divisions,  the  membership  of  a  division 
being  determined  by  phratry.  It  is  purely  a  benevolent  society, 
however,  and  has  nothing  to  do  with  "  medicine."  The  various 
societies  of  all  kinds  had.  and  still  have,  individual  lodges,  each  of 
which  is  nominally  independent  of  any  jurisdiction  save  that  of  its 
own  oflficers.  The  leaders,  however,  confer  and  keep  their  rites 
uniform.  At  present,  especially  in  the  Little  Water  Company,  it  is 
not  even  necessary  for  the  song-holder,  the  chief  officer,  to  be  a 
pagan.  This  company  is  the  only  one  which  can  boast  of  any  great 
Christian  membership  or  of  a  lodge  composed  entirely  of  nominal 
Christians.  This  lodge  is  the  Pleasant  Valley  Lodge  of  the  Little 
Water  Company  on  the  Cattaraugus  reservation.  Mrs  Harriet 
Maxwell  Converse  joined  this  lodge  in  t8o2.  afterward  joining  the 
pagan  lodge  at  Newtow.i. 

A  careful  studv  of  the  Iroquois  societies  will  lead  to  the  conclu- 
sion that  most  of  the  societies  are  of  ancient  origin  and  that  their 
rituals  have  been  transmitted  with  little  change  for  many  years. 
Indeed,  that  under  the  circumstances  any  changes  should  have  been 
made  would  be  stranger  than  that  none  had  occurred  at  all.  Most 
of  the  rituals  are  chanted  in  unison  by  the  entire  comoany  of  mem- 
bers, and  any  change  in  note,  syllable,  o^  word  would  immediately 
be  detected.  Rites  transmitted  by  song  arc  more  difficult  to  change 
than  simple  recitals  where  musical  rh\-thm  is  not  correlated  with  the 


word.  Some  of  the  rituals,  moreover,  contain  archaic  words  and 
expressions,  and  even  entire  sentences  are  not  understood  by  the 

ICach  society  has  a  legend  by  which  its  origin  and  peculiar  rites 
are  explained.  Most  of  these  legends  portray  the  founder  of  the 
society  as  a  lost  hunter,  an  outcast  orphan,  or  a  venturesome  youth 
curious  to  know  what  was  farther  on.  The  founder  got  into  strange 
complications,  saw  strange  or  familiar  animals  engaged  in  their  rites, 
was  discovered,  forgiven,  adopted,  kept  a  captive,  and  finally,  after 
long  study  and  many  warnings,  was  sent  back  to  his  people  to  teach 
them  the  secrets  of  the  animals  and  how  their  favor  could  be 
obtained.  The  secrets  were  to  be  preserved  by  the  society  which  the 
hero  was  to  found. ^  There  are  some  variations  of  this  abstract,  but 
it  covers  the  general  features  of  most  of  the  legends. 

The  study  of  the  societies  was  commenced  by  the  writer  in  1902, 
and  during  the  years  1905-6  an  almost  uninterrupted  study  was 
made  for  the  New  York  State  Education  Department,  and  the 
results  deposited  in  the  State  Library.  Since  that  time  the  research 
has  been  continued  for  the  Nfew  York  State  Museum.  Paraphernalia 
have  been  collected,  phonograph  records  have  been  made  of  many 
of  the  songs  and  ceremonial  speeches,  texts  have  been  recorded  and 
translated,  legends  have  been  gathered,  and  some  music  has  already 
been  transcribed.  There  still  remains  an  enormous  amount  of  work 
to  be  done,  and  it  is  greatly  to  be  regretted  that  a  multiplicity  of 
duties  bars  the  ^\■ay  for  as  speedy  progress  in  this  work  as  might  be 
desirable,  especially  since  many  of  the  informants  are  old  people  and 
in  ill  health. 

A  l)rief  outline  of  the  various  societies  is  presented  in  this  paper. 
It  is  impossible  for  the  sake  of  brevity  to  present  a  fair  compend 
or  even  a  systematic  outline.  The  main  features  of  the  less  known 
organizations  and  some  neglected  facts  of  the  few  that  are  better 
known  are  mentioned,  it  being  hoped  that  even  such  statements 
may  be  useful  to  students  of  ethnology.     The  list  follows.^ 



This  society  is  perhaps  the  best  organized  of  all  the  Seneca  folk- 
societies.  It  holds  four  meetings  each  year,  but  only  on  three 
occasions  is  the  night  song,   Ganoda,   chanted.     To  describe  ade- 

1  Myths  and  Legends  of  the  Iroquois,  N.  Y.  State  Mus.  Bui.  125,  p.  176. 

2  A  description    of  some  of  these  societies  was  prepared   for  incorporation 
in  the  Fifth  Annual  Report  of  the  Director  of  the  State  Museum,  igog. 


quately  the  rites  of  this  society  would  require  a  small  voluuie.  For 
the  purposes  of  this  paper,  since  the  society  has  been  described  at 
greater  length  elsewhere,  only  a  few  notes  can  be  given. 

The  company  is  organized  to  perfor.n  the  rites  thought  neces- 
sary to  preserve  the  potency  of  the  "  secret  medicine,"  niganega"a', 
known  as  the  "  little-water  powder."  The  meetings,  moreover,  are 
social  gatherings  of  the  members  in  which  they  can  renew  friend- 
ship and  smoke  away  mutual  wrongs,  if  any  have  been  committed. 
It  is  contrary  to  the  rules  to  admit  members  having  a  quarrel  unless 
they  are  willing  to  forgive  and  forget.  Both  men  and  women  are 
members.  Its  officers,  in  order  of  their  importance,  are :  the  song- 
holder,  the  chief  matron,  the  watcher  of  the  medicine,  the  feast- 
makers,  invoker,  flute-holder,  and  announcers  and  sentinels.  There 
are  two  altars,  the  Altar  of  the  Fire  and  the  Altar  of  the  Mystery. 
The  ritual  consists  of  three  sets  of  songs  describing  the  various 
adventures  of  the  founder,  known  as  the  Good  Hunter.  At  the 
close  of  each  section  the  feast-makers  pass  bowls  of  berry  juice, 
giving  each  singer  a  draft  from  a  ladle.  In  some  lodges  a  pipe  is 
passed.  An  intermission  then  follows,  during  which  the  members, 
men  and  women  alike,  sroke  the  native  home-grown  tobacco.  The 
singing  is  accompanied  by  the  shaking  of  gourd  rattles,  and  each 
member  shakes  one  while  he  sings.  Only  purified  members  are 
supposed  to  enter.  Unclean  men  or  women,  even  though  members, 
are  debarred.  The  society  has  no  public  ceremony  and  no  dances. 
Only  members  are  supposed  to  know  the  j)recise  time  and  place  of 
meeting.  .The  songs  must  never  be  sung  outside  of  the  lodge-room, 
but  special  meetings  are  sometimes  called  for  the  purpose  of  in- 
structing novices.  The  office  of  song-holder  by  the  Cattaraugus 
Seneca  is  hereditary  to  the  name  O'dim'kot.  Sunshine.  The  present 
song-holder  of  the  Ganun'dase  lodge,  the  pagan  lodge  at  New- 
town, Cataraugus  reservation,  is  a  youth  who  is  learning  the  song, 
George  Pierce,  the  former  O'dan'kot.  having  recently  died. 
Visitors  may  listen  to  the  songs  in  an  outer  room,  but  are  del)arred 
from  viewing  the  "  mysteries."  Each  member,  on  entering,  de- 
posits his  medicine  packet  on  the  Altar  of  the  Mystery  and  places 
his  contribution  of  tobacco  in  the  corn-husk  basket.  The  tobacco 
is  thrown  into  the  fire  by  the  invoker  as  he  chants  his  prayer  to 
the  Creator,  the  Thunder  Spirit,  and  to  the  Great  Darkness.     The 



flute-song  is  played  during  the  second  and  third  sections.  At 
the  close  of  the  ceremony  a  pig's  head  is  passed  and  pieces  of 
tlie  l)oilcd  meat  are  torn  from  the  head  with  tlie  teeth,  the  mem- 
bers cawing  in  imitation  of  crows.  In  early  times  a  bear's  head 
was    eaten.      The    food    is    then    distributed,    and    the    meeting   or 

■"ig.  3     The  medicine  outfit,  liusk  tray,  medicine  bundle,  rattle  and  flute 

■■  sitting  "'  is  concluded.  The  ceremony  commences  at  about  1 1 
o'clock  p.  ni.  and  is  adjourned  at  daybreak.  The  sun  "'  must  not 
see  the  riles."  Tlie  business  of  the  society  is  all  conducted  before 
the  ceremonv  commences:  reports  of  the  officers  are  gi\en  and  the 
treasurer's  re])ort  read.  The  ])araphernalia  of  this  societx'  consist 
of  the  medicine  btindles,  the  flute,  gotird  rattles  for  each  singer,  the 
sacred  tobacco  I)asket  and  a  ])ark  dii)per.  The  necessary  furnish- 
ings are  a  table  and  a  firejilace,  these  being  the  "  altars.""  and  a  lamp. 
The  "  medicine  "  is  not  used  in  the  ceremonies:  it  is  simply  "  sung 
for.""  Its  ])()\ver  is  conserved  for  use  by  the  niedicine  people  in  heal- 
ing ceremonies.  The  singing  of  the  rittial  is  conducted  in  total 
darkness,  the  lights  l)jing  brought  in  (july  during  the  intermissions. 

the  code  of  handsome  lake  110 

dewanondiisso"daik'ta',  pygmy  society,  the  dark  dance 


The  ritual  of  thib  socict}'  consists  of  ioj  songs,  divided  into  four 
sections,  as  follows:  The  tirst  section,  13  songs;  the  second,  23 
songs;  the  third,  30  songs,  and  the  fourth,  34  songs.  Tlie  order  of 
the  ceremony  is  somewhat  like  that  of  the  Medicine  Company.  All 
the  songs  are  sung  in  darkness.  It  is  beliexed  that  the  spirit  mem- 
bers of  the  society  come  and  join  in  the  singing,  and  their  xoices 
are  thought  to  be  audible  at  times. 

The  water  drum  and  the  horn  rattle  are  used  in  this  (.-eremoiu- 
for  keeping  time.  There  is  a  brief  dance.  The  Dark  ceremony  is 
designed  to  appease  certain  sjjirits  and  to  procure  the  good  ot^ces  of 
others.  Aleetings  are  called  at  an)-  time  for  the  purpose  of  appeas- 
ing the  sj^irits  of  certain  charms  that  ha\-e  become  im})otent  or  which 
may  become  so,  or  are  called  by  members  and  even  by  nonmeml)ers 
who  are  troubled  by  certain  signs  and  sounds,  such  as  the  drum- 
ming of  the  water  fairies  or  stone  throwers,  ])\gmies,  who  bv  their 
signs  signify  their  desire  for  a  ceremony.  Nonmembers  become 
members  by  asking  for  the  services  of  the  societv.  The  rites  arc 
l)reeminently  the  religion  of  the  ""  little  folk  "'  whose  good  will  is 
sought  by  all  Indians  living  under  the  intiuence  of  the  ( )ngwe''- 
ohwe'ka',  Indian  belief.  Idic  Pygmies  are  thotight  to  be  "  next  to 
the  people  "  in  importance,  and  to  be  ver\'  jxiwerful  ])eings.  They 
demand  proper  attention  or  they  will  iuHict  punishment  upon  those 
who  neglect  them.  This  societ\-,  however,  "  sings  for  "  all  the 
"  medicine  charms  "  and  all  the  ma'^ic  animals.  These  magic  ani- 
mals are  members  of  the  society,  and  in  order  of  their  importance 
are:  Jo"ga'o",  Elves  or  Pygmies;  Jodi''gwado"'.  the  Great  Idorned 
Serpent ;  Shondowek'owa,  the  Blue  Panther,  the  herald  of 
death  ;  Dewutiowa'is,  the  Exploding  Wren.  (  )ther  members,  equal 
in  rank,  are:  DiatdagwCtt',  White  [5ea\er;  (  )'nowaot'g"ont,  or 
Gane''onttwut,  the  Corn-])Ug;  (Itnii'yont,  .Shar])-legs ;  O'wai'ta, 
Little  Dry  Hand;  Dagwun'noyaent,  Wind  S])irit,  and  .\'ia"'gwahe. 
( ireat  Naked  Rear. 

These  charm-members  are  called  1  lo'tciiie'gada.  The  charms  or 
])arts  of  these  members,  which  the  luiman  members  keep  and  sing 
for,  are:  none  oi  the  first  two,  because  thev  are  \er\'  sacred  and 
''  use  their  nnnds  "  onl\-  for  charms  ;  panther's  claw  ;  feathers  ;  white 
beaver's  castor ;  corn-bug  dried ;  bone  of  sharp-legs ;  dry  hand  ;  hair 
of  the  wind,  and  bones  of  Nia''gwahe.  Some  of  these  charms  bring 
evil  to  the  owners,  but  must  not  be  destroyed  under  any  circum- 

120  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

Stance.  Their  evil  influence  can  be  warded  off  only  by  the  cere- 
monies. The  owner  or  his  family  appoints  someone  to  "  hold  the 
charm  "'  after  the  first  owner's  death.  Other  charms  are  only  for 
benevolent  purposes,  but  become  angry  if  neglected.  Of  the  evil 
charms,  the  sharp  bone  may  be  mentioned ;  and  of  the  good  charms 
the  exploding  bird's  feathers.  Most  of  them  are  regarded,  how- 
ever, as  ot'gont.  The  members  of  this  society  save  their  fingernail 
parings  and  throw  them  over  cliifs  for  the  Pygmies. 

The  ceremonies  of  the  societies  are  always  opened  with  a  speech 
by  the  invoker.  The  following  speech  is  that  of  the  Pygmy  So- 
ciety, and  in  a  general  way  is  the  pattern  of  nearly  all  opening 

Yotdondak'o' ,  Opening  Ceremony  of  the  Pygmy  Society 

We  now  commence  to  thank  our  Creator. 

Now  we  are  thankful  that  we  who  have  assembled  here  are  well. 

We  are  thankful  to  the  Creator  for  the  world  and  all  that  is  upon 
it  for  our  benefit. 

We  thank  the  Sun  and  the  Moon. 

We  thank  the  Creator  that  so  far  tonight  we  are  all  well. 

Now  I  announce  that  A  B  is  to  be  treated. 

Now  this  one,  C  D,  will  throw  tobacco  in  the  fire. 

Now  these  will  lead  the  singing,  E  and  F. 

So  I  have  said. 

[The  "tobacco  thrower''  advances  to  the  fire  and,  seating  him- 
self, takes  a  basket  of  Indian  tobacco  and  speaks  as  follows :] 

Now  the  smoke  rises ! 

Receive  you  this  incense! 

You  who  run  in  the  darkness. 

You  know  that  this  one  has  thought  of  you 

And  throws  this  tobacco  for  you. 

Now  you  are  able  to  cause  sickness. 

Now,  when  first  you  knew  that  men-beings  were  on  earth,  you 

"They  are  our  grandchildren." 

You  promised  to  be  one  of  the  forces  for  men-beings'  helj). 

For  thereby  you  would  recci\e  offerings  of  tobacco. 

So  now  you  get  tobacco  —  von.  the  P\gmies.  [Sprinkles  to1)acco 
on  the  fire.] 

Now  is  the  time  when  you  have  come ; 

You  and  the  member  have  assembled  here  tonight. 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  121 

Now  again  you  receive  tobacco  —  you,  the  Pygmies.  [Throws 

You  are  the  wanderers  of  the  mountains ; 

You  have  promised  to  hear  us  whenever  the  drum  sounds, 

Even  as  far  away  as  a  seven  days"  journey. 

Now  all  of  you  receive  tobacco.      [Throws  tobacco.] 

You  well  know  the  members  of  this  society, 

So  let  this^  cease. 

You  are  the  cause  of  a  person,  a  member,  becoming  ill. 

Henceforth  give  good  fortune  for  she  (or  he)  has  fulfilled  her 
duty  and  given  you  tobacco. 

You  love  tobacco  and  we  remember  it ; 

So  also  yoti  should  remember  us. 

Now  the  drum  receives  tobacco. 

And  the  rattle  also. 

It  is  our  belief  that  we  have  said  all, 

So  now  we  hope  that  you  will  help  us. 

Now  these  are  the  words  spoken  before  you  all. 

You  who  are  gathered  here  tonight. 

So  now  it  is  done. 


This  is  a  band  of  women  organized  to  propitiate  the  otters  and 
other  water  animals  who  are  supposed  to  exercise  an  influence  over 
the  health,  fortunes,  and  destinies  of  men.  The  otter,  which  is  the 
chief  of  the  small  water  animals,  including  the  fish,  is  a  powerful 
medicine-animal,  and  besides  having  his  own  special  society  is  a 
member  of  the  Ye'dos,  or  T'dos,  and  the  Hono'Tcino''ga'. 

The  Otters  may  appear  at  any  public  thanksgiving,  as  the  Green 
Corn  dance  and  the  Midwinter  ceremony.  After  a  tobacco-throw- 
ing ceremony,  hayant'wutgus,  the  three  women  officers  of  the 
DawanMo'  each  dip  a  bucket  of  the  medicine-water  from  the  spring 
or  stream,  dipping  down  with  the  current,  and  carry  it  to  the  coun- 
cil house  where  they  sprinkle  everyone  they  meet  by  dipping  long 
wisps  of  corn  husk  in  the  water  and  shaking  them  at  the  people.  If 
the  women  succeed  in  entering  the  council  house  and  sprinkling 
everyone  without  hindrance,  they  go  for  more  water  and  continue 
until  stopped.  The  only  way  in  which  they  may  be  forced  to  dis- 
continue their  sprinkling  is  for  someone,  just  before  she  sprinkles 
him,  to  snatch  the  pail  and  throw  the  entire  contents  over  her  liead. 

1  The  malific  influence  causing  sickness. 

122  NEW    YORK    STATE    AlUSEUxVI 

The  Otter  woman  will  then  say,  "'  iiat'gaii",  niavve'  I  *" —  meaning, 
■'  Enough,  i  thank  you!  "     She  will  then  retire. 

The  Utters  are  especially  active  during  the  Midwinter  ceremony, 
and  when  the  water  is  thrown  over  their  heads  it  very  often  freezes, 
but  this  is  something  only  to  be  enjoyed.  When  possessed  with  the 
spirit  of  the  otter,  the  women  are  said  to  be  unaware  of  their  actions, 
and  sometimes,  when  they  are  particularly  zealous,  the  whistle  of 
the  otter  is  heard.  This  greatly  frightens  the  people,  who  regard  it 
as  a  manifestation  of  the  presence  of  the  "  great  medicine  otter." 
The  women  afterward  deny  having  imitated  the  otter's  call,  saying 
that  they  were  possessed  of  the  otter  and  had  no  knowledge  of  what 
they  did. 

The  Otter  Society  has  no  songs  and  no  dances.  Its  members 
are  organized  simply  to  give  thanks  to  the  water  animals  and  to 
retain  their  favor.  When  one  is  ungrateful  to  the  water  animals, 
as  a  wasteful  fisherman,  or  a  hunter  who  kills  muskrats  or  beaver 
without  asking  permission  or  offering  tobacco  to  their  spirits,  he 
becomes  strangely  ill,  so  it  is  believed.  The  Otters  then  go  to  a 
spring  and  conduct  a  ceremony,  after  which  they  enter  the  sick 
man's  lodge  and  sprinkle  him  with  spring  water,  hoping  thereby  to 
cure  him. 

i''dos  oa'no',  society  of  mystic  animals 

The  T'dos  Company  is  a  band  of  "  medicine  "  people  whose  ob- 
ject is  to  preserve  and  perform  the  rites  thought  necessary  to  keep 
the  continued  good  will  of  the  "  medicine  "  animals.  According 
to  the  traditions  of  the  company,  these  animals  in  ancient  times 
entered  into  a  league  with  them.  The  animals  taught  them  the 
ceremonies  necessary  to  please  them,  and  said  that,  should  these  be 
faithfully  performed,  they  would  continue  to  be  of  service  to  man- 
kind. They  would  cure  disease,  banish  pain,  displace  the  causes  of 
disasters  in  nature,  and  overcome  ill  luck. 

FAcry  member  of  the  company  has  an  individual  song  to  sing  in 
the  ceremonies,  and  thus  the  length  of  the  ceremony  depends  on 
the  mimber  of  the  members.  When  a  person  enters  the  I'^'dos,  he 
is  given  a  gourd  rattle  and  a  song.  These  he  must  keep  with  care, 
not  forgetting  the  song  or  losing  the  rattle. 

The  head  singers  of  the  T'dos  are  two  men  who  chant  the  dance 
song,  lliis  chant  relates  the  marvels  that  the  medicine  man  is  able 
to  perform,  and  as  they  sing  he  proceeds  to  do  as  the  song  directs, 
lie  lifts  a  red-hot  stone  from  the  lodge  fire  and  tosses  it  like  a  ball 
in  liis  naked  hands ;  he   demonstrates  that  he  can   see  through   a 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  1 23 

carved  wooden  mask  having  no  eyeholes,  by  finding  various  things 
about  the  lodge ;  he  causes  a  doll  to  appear  as  a  living  being,  and 
mystifies  the  company  in  other  ways.  It  is  related  that  new  mem- 
bers sometimes  doubt  the  power  of  the  mystery-man  and  laugh  out- 
right at  some  of  the  claims  of  which  he  boasts.  In  such  a  case  he 
approaches  the  doll,  and  though  his  face  be  covered  by  a  wooden 
mask,  cuts  the  string  that  fastens  its  skirt.  The  skirt  drops,  expos- 
ing the  legs  of  the  doll.  Then  the  doubting  woman  laughs,  for 
everyone  else  is  laughing,  at  the  doll  she  supposes,  but  shortly  she 
notices  that  everyone  is  looking  at  her,  and  to  her  utmost  chagrin 
discovers  that  her  own  skirt-string  has  been  cut  and  that  she  is  cov- 
ered only  by  her  undergarments.  Immediately  she  stops  laughing 
and  never  afterward  doubts  the  powers  of  the  medicine-man,  who, 
when  he  cut  the  doll's  skirt-string  by  his  magic  power,  cuts  hers 

The  T'dos  is  said  to  have  been  introduced  among  the  Seneca 
bv  the  Huron,  llie  ritual,  however,  is  in  Seneca,  though  some  of 
the  words  are  not  understood.  The  ])rincipal  ceremonies  are: 
(o)  Gai'yowe"'ogov.'a,  The  sharp  point;  ( /' )  Gahadi'yago",  At  the 
wood's  edge;  (c)  Gai'Mo",  The  great  Gai"do".  Other  ceremonies 
are :  0'to'do"gwa'^  It  is  blazing ;  and  Tci'gwawa,  The  other  way 
around.  During  ceremonies  b  and  c  only  individual  members  sing. 
The  chief  of  the  society  is  said  to  be  a  man  who  is  able  to  see 
through  a  wooden  mask  which  has  no  eye-openings.  By  his  magic 
power  he  is  able  to  discover  hidden  things  previously  concealed  l)y 
the  members,  probably  by  some  particular  member.  He  discoxers 
the  ceremonial,  no  matter  where  hidden,  and  juggles  with  a  hot 
stone  drawn  from  the  fire.  When  the  ceremonies  are  finished  the 
members  feast  on  a  pig's  head.  In  early  times  a  deer's  head  was 
used.  As  do  the  members  of  the  Medicine  Lodge  upon  such  an 
occasion,  the  members  tear  the  meat  from  the  head  with  their  teeth. 
The  ceremonies  of  the  society  are  now  considered  an  efficacious 
treatment  for  fevers  and  skin  diseases.  The  rites  are  supposed  to 
be  strictly  secret. 

The  writer  has  transcribed  the  entire  text  of  the  F'dos  ritual  in 
Seneca  and  has  translated  it.  Three  masks  are  used  in  the  rites  — 
the  Conjuror's  mask,  the  Witch  mask,  and  the  Dual-spirit's  mask. 
These  masks  are  never  used  in  the  rites  of  the  False  Face  Company 
and  difi^er  from  them  in  that  they  have  no  metal  eyes.  A  flash- 
light picture  of  a  corner  of  the  I''dos  lodge  was  made  by  the  writer 
in  January  1909,  but  the  session  of  the  lodge  was  not  one  of  tlie 
"  regular  "  ones. 

124  new  york  state  museum 

sha'^dotgr'a,  the  eagle  society 

The  ritual  of  the  Eagle  Society  consists  of  ten  songs  and  a  dance. 
The  song  is  called  Gane'^gwae  oa''no'.  Every  member  participat- 
ing in  the  ceremony  paints  on  each  cheek  a  round  red  spot.  No  one 
but  members  may  engage  in  its  ceremonies,  even  though  these  be 
performed  publicly.  The  Eagle  Society's  ceremony  is  regarded  as 
most  sacred,  in  this  respect  next  to  the  Great  Feather  Dance, 
O'stowii'gowa.  It  is  believed  that  the  society  holds  in  its  songs  the 
most  potent  charms  known.  It  is  said  that  the  dying,  especially 
those  afflicted  with  wasting  diseases,  and  old  people,  have  been 
completelv  restored  b}'-  its  ceremonies.  This  is  because  the  Dew 
Eagle,  to  which  the  society  is  dedicated,  is  the  reviver  of  wilting 
things.^  The  membership  is  divided  into  two  classes  by  phratry- 
ship.  A  person  may  become  a  member  by  dreaming  such  a  thing 
necessary,  or  by  receiving  the  rites  of  the  society  in  case  of  illness. 
Special  costumes  are  worn  in  the  ceremonies.  In  the  dance  the 
members  divide  and  stand  opposite  each  other  according  to  phratry, 
the  animals  opposite  the  birds.  Two  dancers  from  each  phratry 
are  chosen,  and  one  singer  from  each.  The  dancers  assume  a  squat- 
ting posture  and  imitate  the  motions  of  birds.  The  physical  exer- 
tion is  intense  and  requires  constant  interruption.  The  dancers  and 
singers  continue  to  dance  and  sing  until  completely  exhausted,  unless 
someone  strikes  the  signal  pole  and  makes  a  speech.  The  dancers 
then  retire  to  their  benches  until  the  speech  ends,  when  the  singers 
take  up  their  song  and  the  dance  is  continued.  After  his  speech, 
the  speaker,  who  may  be  any  member,  presents  the  dancers  for 
whom  he  speaks  with  a  gift  of  monev.  tobacco,  or  bread :  but  the 
old  custom  was  to  give  only  such  things  as  birds  liked  for  food. 
The  speeches  are  usually  in  praise  of  one's  own  clan  and  in  derision 
of  the  opposite  phratry.  At  the  close,  the  speakers  all  apologize  for 
their  clannish  zeal,  and  say,  as  if  ever^'one  did  not  known  it,  that 
their  Jibes  were  intended  only  as  jests.  The  dancers  each  hold  in 
their  left  hands  a  calumet  fan.  made  by  suspending  six  heron  or 
four  eagle  feathers  parallel  and  horizontally  from  a  rod  or  reed.  In 
their  right  hands  they  hold  small  gourd  rattles  with  wooden  handles, 
or  small  bark  rattles  made  of  a  folded  strip  of  hickory  bark  pat- 
terned after  the  larger  False-face  bark  rattles.  The  signal  pole  and 
the  striking  stick  are  spirally  striped   with   red   paint.     After  the 

^The  Dew  Eaijle  refreshed  the  scalp  of  the  Good  Hunter  by  pluckinpr  a 
feather  from  its  hreast  and  sprinklinc:  the  scalp  with  dew  from  the  lake  in 
the  hollow  of  its  back. 



ceremony,  when  held  in  a  private  lodge,  the  members  feast  on  a  pig's 
head;  but  this  is  a  modern  substitute  for  a  bear's  or  a  deer's  head, 
though  crows'  heads  once  were  eaten  also. 


The  ritual  of  the  Bear  Society  consists  of  twenty  songs  and  a 
dance.  During  the  intermissions  in  the  dance, 
that  is,  between  songs,  the  participants  eat 
berries  from  a  pan  on  the  dance-bench,  or,  in 
winter,  eat  honey,  taking  portions  of  the  comb 
and  eating  it  as  they  walk  about  the  bench. 
The  ceremony  is  opened  by  making  a  tobacco 
offering  to  the  spirits  of  the  bears,  during 
which  the  chief  Bear-man  makes  an  in- 
vocation. The  high  officer  of  the  society, 
however,  is  a  woman.  The  symbol  of  mem- 
bership is  a  black  streak  drawn  diagonally 
across  the  right  cheek.  The  object  of  the 
society  is  to  cure  the  diseases  of  its  mem- 
bers and  candidates  by  chanting  and  dancing. 
The  ceremony  is  believed  to  be  a  remedy 
for  fevers  and  rheumatism,  as  well  as  to 
bring  good  fortune.  In  a  healing  ceremony 
the  chief  woman  blows  on  the  head  of  the 
patient.  After  a  ceremony  the  members 
carry  home  with  them  pails  of  bear  pud- 
ding, a  sweetened  corn  pudding  mixed  with 
sunflower  oil.  The  Bears  use  the  water 
drum   and   horn   rattles.      All    Seneca   dances 

are    counterclockwise.  F'?,4  ^  Horn  RatUe^use^d  i„ 



The  ritual  of  this  society  consists  of  a  number  of  songs  which 
relate  the  story  of  the  origin  of  the  order.  After  a  ceremony  in 
which  there  is  a  dance,  the  members  depart,  carrying  with  them  the 
buffalo  pudding.  The  dancers  imitate  the  action  of  buffalo  when 
stamping  off  flies,  and  the  pudding  is  supposed  to  be  of  the  consis- 
tency of  the  mud  in  which  the  buffalo  stamps.  When  it  is  eaten  it 
acts  as  a  charm  that  "  stamps  off  "  disease  or  ill  fortune.  The 
Buffalos  use  the  water  drum  and  horn  rattles. 

126  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 


The  O'gi'we  ceremony  is  called  for  by  any  member  who  dreams 
of  the  restless  spirit  of  some  former  member,  relative,  or  friend.  At 
the  ceremony  the  set  of  songs  is  sung,  the  large  water  drum  beaten, 
and  a  feast  indulged  in.  The  food  is  supposed  to  satisfy  the  hungry 
ghosts  that  for  some  reason  are  "  earth-bound,"  as  spiritists  might 
express  it.  The  O'gi'we  ceremony  must  not  be  confused  with  the 
Death  Feast  ceremony,  which  is  a  clan  affair.  The  diviner  of  the 
O'gi'we  people  is  able  to  identify  the  unknown  spirit  which  may  be 
troubling  the  dreams  of  a  member.  The  sickness  and  ill  fortune 
caused  by  evil  ghosts  may  be  dispelled  by  the  ceremony.  The  chief 
ofificer  is  a  woman. 


This  society  preserves  the  ritual  by  which  good  fortune  and 
health  are  obtained  for  women.  The  singers,  fourteen  in  number 
at  Cattaraugus,  are  all  men.  During  their  singing  the  women  dance. 
The  office  of  chief  singer  is  hereditary.  Tlic  women  join  in  a 
chorus  as  the  men  sing.     Horn  rattles  and  water  drums  are  used. 


This  society  is  composed  of  a  body  of  women  whose  special  duty 
is  to  offer  thanks  to  the  spirits  of  the  corn,  the  beans,  and  the 
squashes.  Dio'he'ko  (these  sustain  our  lives).  By  their  ceremonies 
of  thanksgiving  the  Towii''sas  propitiate  the  spirits  of  growth,  and 
people  are  assured  of  a  good  harvest.  The  Towii'sas  have  a  cere- 
monial song  and  a  march,  but  no  dances.  The  legend  of  the  society 
relates  that  the  entire  band  of  Towii'sas,  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  was  captured  by  the  Cherokee  and  carried 
down  the  Ohio  river.  Thereafter  two  men  were  admitted  as  escorts 
in  their  march  through  the  woods.  At  the  closing  of  the  ceremony 
the  head-woman  chants  the  Dio'he'ko  song  as  she  leads  her  band 
about  a  kettle  of  corn  pudding.  She  carries  an  armful  of  corn  on 
the  cob ;  in  her  right  hand  she  holds  some  loose  beans,  and  in  her 
left  some  squash  seeds,  the  emblems  of  fcrtilitv.  The  Towii'sas 
hold  one  ceremony  each  year,  unless  some  calamity  threatens  the 
harvest.  The  rattle  of  this  society  is  made  of  a  land  tortoise  (box- 
turtle")  shell.  These  arc  often  found  in  graves,  but  their  exact  use 
in  the  Iroquois  territory  has  not  generally  been  known  to  arche- 
ologists.  The  leg  rattle  is  another  variety  having  several  perfora- 




This  organization  is  one  of  the  better  known  societies  of  the  Iro- 
quois, and  its  rites  have  often  been  described,  though  not  always 
correctly  interpreted.  There  are  three  divisions  of  the  False  Faces, 
and  four  classes  of  masks  —  doorkeeper  or  doctor  masks,  dancing 
masks,  beggar  masks,  and  secret  masks.  The  beggar  and  thief 
masks  form  no  part  of  the  paraphernalia  of 
the  true  society,  and  the  secret  masks  are 
never  used  in  public  ceremonies  in  the  coun- 
cil house  at  the  midwinter  ceremony.  The 
False  Face  ceremonies  have  been  well  de- 
scribed, though  by  no  means  exhaustively, 
by  Morgan^  and  Boyle."  The  main  features 
are  generally  known. 

The  paraphernalia  of  this  society  consist 
of  the  masks  j)reviously  mentioned,  turtle- 
shell  rattles  (snai)ping  turtles  onlyj,  hickory 
bark  rattles,  head  tliruws,  a  leader's  pole 
upon  which  is  fastened  a  small  husk  face,  a 
small  wooden  false  face,  and  a  small  turtle 
rattle,  and  a  tobacco  basket. 

There  are  two  Seneca  legends  setting 
forth  the  origin  of  the  False  Faces,  and  three 
with  the  Mohawk  story.  These  stories,  how- 
ever, explain  the  origin  of  different  classes 
of  masks.  Each  mask  has  a  name.  One 
story  relates  that  the  False  Faces  originated  with  the  Stone  Gaints. 
However  this  may  be,  the  writer  obtained  in  1905,  from  a  woman 
claiming  to  be  the  keeper  of  the  secret  masks,  a  mask  representing 
the  Stone  Gaint's  face.  With  it  was  a  mask  made  of  wood,  over 
which  was  stretched  a  rabbit  skin  stained  with  blood.  This  mask 
was  supposed  to  represent  the  face  of  a  traitor  as  he  would  look 
when  drowned  for  his  infamy.  Chief  Delos  Kettle  said  it  was  used 
to  cure  veneral  diseases. 

There  is  some  dispute  as  to  the  antiquity  of  the  False  Face  Com- 
pany. Doctor  Beauchamp,  in  his  History  of  the  Iroquois,"  says  it  is 
comparatively  recent.  From  a  study  of  the  Seneca  society,  liow- 
ever,  the  writer  is  inclined  to  l)elieve  that  it  is  quite  old  with  them, 

Fig.  S     Typical  mrdicinc  mask 

1  Morgan,  Fifth  Annual  Report  New  York  State  Cabinet  (Museum),  1852, 

'Boyle,  Archaeological  Report,  Provincial  Museum,  Toronto,  1898,  p.   157. 
N.  Y.  State  Mus.  P.ul.  78,  p.  141. 

128  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

although  it  may  be  more  recent  with  the  other  Iroquois.  Early 
explorers  certainly  could  not  have  seen  everything  of  Iroquois  cul- 
ture, especially  some  of  the  secret  things,  and  then-  lack  of  descrip- 
tion may  be  regarded  as  negative  testimony  rather  than  as  positive 
evidence  of  the  nonexistence  of  certain  features  which  later  students 
have  found,  it  is  quite  possible  that  the  author  of  "  Van  Curler's  " 
Journal  of  1634-35  mentions  a  false  face  when  he  writes:  "This 
chief  showed  me  his  idol ;  it  was  a  head  with  the  teeth  sticking  out ; 
it  was  dressed  in  red  cloth.  Others  have  a  snake,  a  turtle,  a  swan, 
a  crane,  a  pigeon  for  their  idols.  .  .  ."'  The  Seneca  at  present 
drape  their  false  faces  when  they  hang  them  up  for  safe  keeping, 
and  use  them  as  well  as  turtle  and  snake  charms  as  bringers  of  good 
fortune.  Some  pipes  from  seventeenth-century  graves  seem  to  rep- 
resent blowing  masks.  Mr  M.  R.  Harrington  and  the  writer  found 
one  in  1903  while  excavating  a  seventeenth-century  site,  since 
learned  to  be  of  Seneca  occupancy,  on  Cattaraugus  creek,  near 
Irving.  The  counterpart  of  this  pipe  was  found  by  R.  M.  Peck  on 
the  Warren  site,  near  West  Bloomheld,  N.  Y.  The  Indians  say  it 
is  a  False  Face  blowing  ashes,  and  such  it  may  represent.  Mr  Har- 
rington, and  the  writer  as  well,  have  found  what  may  be  false  face 
eye-disks,  as  well  as  turtle-shell  rattles,  in  Seneca  and  Erie  graves. 
The  principal  False  Face  ceremonies  are :  Ganoi'^iowi,  Marching 
Song;  Hodigosshos'ga,  Doctors'  Dance,  and  Yea°se°dadi'yas,  Door- 
keepers' Dance. 


Now  receive  you  this  tobacco,  you,  Shagodiowe'^'gowa,  the  great 
false  face. 

Now  it  is  that  you  have  come  to  where  your  grandchildren  are 

Now  you  are  taking  the  place  of  the  great  false  faces  who  are 
wandering  in  the  rocky  valleys  and  mountains. 

Now  you  are  the  ones  who  think  much  of  this  sacred  tobacco. 

Now  we  wish  to  make  a  request  of  you.  So  we  always  offer  this 
sacred  tobacco  [literally,  real  tobacco],  when  we  ask  anything  of 

We  pray  that  you  help  us  with  your  power. 

You  can  go  over  all  the  earth. 

In  the  center  of  the  earth  is  a  great  pine  tree  and  that  is  the  place 
of  your  resting.  It  is  there  that  you  rub  your  rattle  when  you  come 
to  rest. 


N'ow  then  this  tree  receives  this  tobacco. 

We  ask  that  you  watch  over  us  and  exercise  your  power  to  pro- 
tect us  from  anything  harmful. 

We  hold  in  mind  that  you  have  ever  done  your  duty  in  past  times 
and  we  ask  that  you  continue  [vigilant]  henceforth. 

We  use  this  tobacco  when  we  ask  favors  of  you  for  you  are  very 
fond  of  this  tobacco. 

Now  your  cane  gets  tobacco.  The  great  pine  tree  to  its  top  is 
your  cane. 

Now  you,  the  husk  faces,  you  get  tobacco  also. 

You  have  been  associated  with  the  false  faces  in  times  past.  Now 
you  receive  tobacco  for  you  have  done  your  duty. 

So  it  is  finished. 


This  society  seems  rather  loosely  organized  among  the  Seneca, 
but  its  chief  members  act  as  water  doctors.  They  endeavor  to  cure 
certain  diseases  by  spraying  and  sprinkling  water  on  the  patients. 
Two  Husk-faces  are  admitted  with  the  False  Faces  in  their  mid- 
winter long-house  ceremony,  and  act  as  door-openers.  As  a  com- 
pany they  also  have  a  ceremony  in  which  the  Grandfather's  Dance 
is  featured.  The  grandfather  is  attired  in  rags,  and,  holding  a  cane 
stationary,  dances  in  a  circle  about  it,  using  the  cane  as  a  pivot.  The 
company  dance  is  one  in  which  all  the  members  participate.  Non- 
members  may  partake  of  the  medicine  influence  of  the  ceremony 
by  joining  in  the  dance  at  the  end  of  the  line  when  the  ceremony  is 
performed  in  the  council  house  at  the  midwinter  festival. 

That  the  foregoing  so-called  societies  are  in  fact  organizations, 
and  that  their  rites  are  not  merely  open  ceremonies  in  which  anyone 
may  engage,  is  apparent  from  the  following  considerations : 

1  The  organizations  have  permanent  officers  for  the  various  parts 
of  their  rites. 

2  They  have  executive  officers. 

3  They  have  certain  objects  and  stand  for  specific  purposes. 

4  They  have  stable  and  unchangeable  rituals. 

5  Those  who  have  not  undergone  some  form  of  an  initiatory 
rite  are  not  allowed  to  enter  into  their  ceremonies. 

6  They  have  legends  by  which  the  origin  and  objects  of  the  rites 
are  explained. 

7  It  is  not  permissible  to  recite  the  rituals  or  to  chant  any  of  the 
songs  outside  of  the  lodge  to  anyone  who  has  not  been  inducted  mto 
the  society. 

130  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

Some  of  the  societies  have  other  features,  such  as  stated  meet- 
ings and  officers'  reports,  but  the  foregoing  characteristics  apply  to 
all  the  Seneca  secret  or  semisecret  ceremonies  and  entitle  them  to 
the  name  of  societies. 

When  an  Indian  is  afflicted  with  some  disorder  which  can  not  be 
identified  by  the  native  herb  doctors,  the  relatives  of  the  patient 
consult  a  clairvoyant,  who  names  the  ceremony,  one  of  those  above 
described,  believed  to  be  efficacious  in  treating  the  ailment.  Some 
times  several  ceremonies  are  necessary,  and  as  a  final  resort  a  watch- 
doctor  is  called  upon. 

As  to  the  influence  of  these  organizations  on  the  people,  while 
it  must  be  confessed  that  they  foster  some  "  superstitions  "  incon- 
sistent with  the  modern  folk-ways  of  civilized  society,  they  serve 
more  than  any  other  means  to  conserve  the  national  life  of  the  peo- 
ple. The  strongest  body  of  Iroquois  in  New  York  today  are  the 
two  bands  or  divisions  of  the  Seneca,  and  the  Seneca  have  the  larg- 
est numl)er  of  "  j)ugans."  They  are  perhaps  likewise  the  most 
patriotic,  and  struggle  with  greater  energy  to  retain  their  tribal 
organization  and  national  identity. 

The  customs  of  these  adherents  of  the  old  Irocjuois  religion  read 
on  and  influence  the  entire  body  of  the  people,  "  pagans  "  and 
Christians  alike. 


Plate   20 

Sacrifice   of    the   White    Dog   on   the    Grand    River    reservation    of   the    Six 

Nations,  Canada 




The  Iroquois  of  New  York  and  Canada  still  retain  vestiges  of 
their  former  adoration  of  the  sun,  and  observe  certain  rites,  very 
likely  survivals  of  more  elaborate  sun  ceremonies. 

The  writer  has  witnessed  several  so-called  "  sun  dances  "  among 
the  Iroquois ;  but  in  every  case  the  dance  was  the  Ostowa''gowa,  or 
Great  Feather  Dance,  the  prime  religious  dance  of  the  Gai'wiio' 
religion.  This  modern  religion  was  originated  about  1800  by 
Ganio'dai'io*  ("  Handsome  Lake  "  the  Seneca  prophet)  and  almost 
entirely  revolutionized  the  religious  system  of  the  Iroquois  of  New 
York  and  Ontario.  Few  of  the  early  folk  beliefs  have  survived  the 
taboo  of  the  prophet;  and  these  beliefs  are  not  easily  traced,  or  even 
discovered,  unless  one  has  before  him  the  Gai'wiio'  of  Handsome 
Lake  and  the  Code  of  Dekanowi'da,  the  founder  of  the  Confed- 

The  Seneca  sun  ceremony,  Endeka  Dii'kwa  Dannon'dinon'nio' 
("Day  Orb-of-light  Thanksgiving"),  is  called  by  any  individual 
who  dreams  that  the  rite  is  necessary  for  the  welfare  of  the  com- 
munity. The  ceremony  begins  promptly  at  high  noon,  when  three 
showers  of  arrows  or  volleys  from  muskets  are  shot  heavenward  to 
notify  the  sun  of  the  intention  to  address  him.  After  each  of  the 
volleys  the  populace  shout  their  war  cries,  "  for  the  sun  loves  war." 
A  ceremonial  fire  is  built  —  anciently  by  the  use  of  a  pump-drill, 
modernly  by  a  match  —  and  the  sun-priest  chants  his  thanksgiving 
song,  casting  from  a  husk  basket  handfuls  of  native  tobacco  upon 
the  flames  as  he  sings.  This  ceremony  takes  place  outside  the  long 
house,  where  the  rising  smoke  may  lift  the  words  of  the  speaker  to 
the  sun.  Immediately  after  this,  the  entire  assemblage  enters  the 
long  house,  where  the  costumed  Feather  dancers  start  the  Osto- 

Among  the  Onondaga  of  the  Grand  River  reserve  in  Ontario,  the 
leader  of  the  sun  ceremony  carries  an  effigy  of  the  sun.  This  is  a 
disk  of  wood  ten  inches  in  diameter,  fastened  to  a  handle  perhaps  a 
foot  long.  The  disk  is  painted  red  in  the  center,  and  has  a  border 
of  yellow.  Around  the  edge  are  stuck  yellow-tipped  down-feathers 
from  some  large  bird.  The  New  York  Iroquois  have  no  such 
effigies,  and  the  writer  seriously  doubts  that  the  preachers  of  Hand- 
some Lake's  Gai'wiio'  would  permit  such  a  practice,  it  being  a  viola- 

^  A.  C.  Parker  in  the  Journal  of  American  Folk  Lore,  October-December 


132  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

tion  of  the  prophet's  teaching.  The  Canadian  Iroquois,  however, 
received  the  revelations  later  than  their  New  York  brethren,  and 
were  longer  under  the  influence  of  the  older  religion,  which  may 
account  for  the  survival  and  use  of  the  sun-disk. 

The  writer  has  discovered  several  sun  myths  among  the  Seneca, 
the  one  which  follows  being  related  by  Edward  Cornplanter, 
Soson'dowa  (''Great  Night"),  the  recognized  head  preacher  of 
the  Gai'wiio'  of  Handsome  Lake.  Cornplanter  is  a  Seneca,  and  a 
descendant  of  Gaiant'waka,  the  prophet's  brother. 

The  fragments  of  the  cosmological  myths  which  conclude  this 
article  are  from  a  mass  of  ethnological  and  folk-lore  data  which  it 
is  hoped  will  shortly  be  edited  and  published. 


This  happened  in  old  times,  when  there  were  not  many  people. 
There  were  three  brothers  and  they  were  not  married.  They  were 
hunters  and  had  spent  their  lives  hunting.  When  the  brothers  were 
young  they  enjoyed  the  excitement  of  hunting;  but  as  they  grew 
older  it  did  not  give  them  so  much  pleasure.  The  youngest  brother 
suggested  that  for  new  experiences  they  walk  to  the  edge  of  the 
earth,  where  the  sky  comes  down  and  touches  the  big  sea  of  salt 
water.  There  is  salt  water  west,  and  this  world  is  an  island.  The 
other  brothers  thought  the  plan  a  good  one ;  and  when  they  had 
prepared  everything  they  started  on  the  journey.  They  traveled  a 
good  many  years  and  a  good  many  things  happened  to'them.  They 
always  went  straight  westward. 

At  last  the  brothers  came  to  a  place  where  the  sun  goes  under  the 
sky's  edge.  The  sky  bends  down  there  and  sinks  into  the  water. 
They  camped  there  for  a  month  and  watched  the  things  that  hap- 
pened there.  They  noticed  how  the  sun  got  under  the  rim  of  the 
sky  and  went  away  quickly.  Some  men  came  there  and  tried  to 
get  under  the  edge  of  the  sky,  but  it  descended  quickly  and  crushed 
them.  There  is  a  road  there.  Now  they  noticed  that  when  the  sky 
came  up,  the  water  sank  lower;  and  that  when  the  sky  went  in  the 
water,  the  water  rose  higher. 

The  younger  brothers  desired  to  pass  under  the  rim  of  the  sky 
when  the  sun  slipped  under  on  his  road ;  but  the  elder  brother  said 
that  the  happenings  were  too  evilly  mysterious,  and  that  he  was 
afraid.  The  younger  brothers  ran  under  the  rim  of  the  sky  quickly, 
and  the  rim  was  very  thick.  They  kept  on  the  road,  and  water  was 
on  each  side.     They  were  afraid  that  the  sky  would  come  down  and 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  1 33 

crush  them.  Now,  the  oldest  brother,  it  is  said,  watched  them ; 
and  when  he  saw  that  nothing  happened  to  injure  his  brothers,  he 
began  to  run  after  them.  The  younger  brotliers  turned  from  their 
safe  place  to  encourage  him ;  but  the  sky  came  down  on  the  sun's 
road  and  crushed  him,  but  they  saw  his  spirit  (notwai'sha")  shoot 
by  quickly.    The  brothers  felt  sad. 

On  the  other  side  of  the  sky  everything  is  dilTerent,  so  it  is  said. 
Before  the  brothers  was  a  large  hill;  and  when  they  had  ascended 
it,  they  saw  a  very  large  village  in  the  distance.  A  man  came  run- 
ning toward  them.  He  was  in  the  distance ;  but  he  came  nearer, 
and  he  called  out,  "Come!"  It  was  their  elder  brother.  "How 
did  you  come  so  quickly,  brother?  "  they  asked.  "  We  did  not  see 
you  come." 

The  brother  answered  only,  "  I  was  late."  He  passed  by  on  a 

An  old  man  came  walking  toward  them.  He  was  youthful  and 
his  body  was  strong,  but  his  hair  was  long  and  white.  He  was  an 
old  man.     His  face  was  wise-looking,  and  he  seemed  a  chief. 

"  I  am  the  father  of  the  people  in  the  Above-the-Sky-Place,"  he 
said.  "  Haweni'io'  is  my  son.  I  wish  to  advise  you  because  I  have 
lived  here  a  long  time.  I  have  always  lived  here,  but  Haweni'io'  was 
born  of  the  woman  on  the  island.  When  you  see  Haweni'io',  call 
quickly,  '  Niawe'^'^skano"' !'  If  you  fail  to  speak  first,  he  will  say, 
'  You  are  mine,'  and  you  will  be  spirits,  as  your  brother  is." 

The  brothers  proceeded  and  saw  a  high  house  made  of  white 
bark.  They  walked  up  the  path  to  the  door.  A  tall  man  stepped 
out  quickly,  and  the  brothers  said,  "  Niawe'^'^skiino"' !  "  and  the 
great  man  said,  "  Doge"s',  I  have  been  watching  you  for  a  long 
time."  The  brothers  entered  the  hotise.  Now,  when  they  were  in 
the  house,  the  man  said,  ''  In  what  condition  are  your  bodies  ?  " 
The  brothers  answered,  "  They  are  fine  bodies."  The  great  man 
answered,  "  You  do  not  speak  the  truth.  I  am  Haweni'io',  and  I 
know  all  about  your  bodies.  One  of  you  must  lie  down,  and  I  will 
purify  him,  and  then  the  other." 

One  brother  lay  down,  and  Haweni'io'  placed  a  small  shell  to  his 
lips,  and  put  it  on  the  brother's  mouth.  He  also  tapped  him  on  the 
neck,  and  sealed  the  shell  with  clay.  He  began  to  skin  the  brother. 
He  took  apart  the  muscles,  and  then  scraped  the  bones.  He  took 
out  the  organs  and  washed  them.  Then  Haweni'io'  built  the  man 
again.  He  loosened  the  clay  and  rul^bed  his  neck.  He  did  this  with 
both  brothers ;  and  they  sat  up,  and  said,  "  It  seems  as  if  we  had 

134  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

slept."  Haweni'io*  said,  ''  Every  power  of  your  bodies  is  renewed. 
I  will  test  you." 

The  brothers  followed  Haweni'io'  to  a  fine  grove  of  trees  sur- 
rounded by  a  thick  hedge.  All  kinds  of  flowers  were  blooming 
outside.     "  My  deer  are  here,"  said  Haweni'io'. 

A  large  buck  with  wide  antlers  ran  toward  them.  "  He  is  the 
swiftest  of  my  runners.     Try  and  catch  him,"  said  Haweni'io'. 

The  men  ran  after  the  deer,  and  rapidly  overtook  him.  "  He  has 
given  us  good  speed,"  the  brothers  said.  They  soon  discovered  that 
they  had  many  surpassing  abilities,  and  the  great  man  tested  them 
all  on  that  day. 

They  returned  to  the  white  lodge,  and  the  brothers  saw  a  messen- 
ger running  toward  them.  Upon  his  wide  chest  was  a  bright  ball  of 
light.  It  was  very  brilliant.  In  some  unknown  language  he  shouted 
to  Haweni'io'  and  dashed  on. 

"Do  you  understand  his  words,  or  do  you  know  that  man?" 
asked  Haweni'io'.  "  He  is  the  sun,  my  messenger.  Each  day  he 
brings  me  news.  Nothing  from  east  to  west  escapes  his  eye.  He 
has  just  told  me  of  a  great  war  raging  between  your  people  and 
another  nation.  Let  us  look  down  on  the  earth  and  see  what  is 

They  all  went  to  a  high  hill  in  the  middle  of  the  country,  and 
looked  down  through  a  hole  where  a  tree  had  been  uprooted.  They 
saw  two  struggling  bands  of  people  and  all  the  houses  burning. 
They  could  hear  people  crying  and  yelling  their  war  cries. 

"  Men  will  always  do  this,"  said  Haweni'io',  and  then  they  went 
down  the  hill. 

The  brothers  stayed  a  long  time  in  the  ui)i)er  world,  and  learned 
so  much  that  they  never  could  tell  it  all.  Sometimes  they  looked 
down  on  the  earth  and  saw  villages  in  which  no  one  lived.  They 
knew  that  they  were  waiting  for  people  to  be  born  and  live  there. 
In  the  upper  world  they  saw  villages,  likewise,  awaiting  the  coming 
of  people.  Haweni'io'  told  them  a  good  many  things,  and  after  a 
time  told  a  messenger  to  lead  them  to  the  path  that  the  sun  took 
when  he  came  out  on  the  earth  in  the  morning.  They  followed  the 
messenger  and  came  out  on  the  earth.  They  waited  until  the 
sun  went  over  the  earth  and  had  gone  to  the  west.  Again  then 
they  went  under  the  edge  of  the  sky  in  the  east,  and  came  out  in 
their  country  again.  It  was  night,  and  they  slc]-)t  on  the  ground. 
In  the  morning  they  saw  their  own  village,  and  it  was  overgrown 
with  trees.     They   followed  a  path   through  the  woods  and  came 

THE    CODE    OF    HANDSOME    LAKE  135 

upon  another  village.  Their  own  people  were  there,  and  they  went 
into  a  council  house  and  talked.  They  told  their  story  ;  and  no  one 
knew  them  except  their  own  sister,  who  was  an  aged  woman. 

"  The  war  of  which  }uu  speak  took  place  fifty  years  ago,"  the 
sister  said. 

The  brothers  did  not  care  for  the  earth  now,  but  wished  them- 
selves back  in  the  upper  world.  They  were  not  like  other  men,  for 
they  never  grew  tired.  They  were  very  strong  and  could  chase 
animals  and  kill  tliem  with  their  hands.  Nothing  could  kill  them, 
neither  arrows  nor  disease.  After  a  while,  both  were  struck  by 
lightning,  and  then  they  were  both  killed. 

It  seems  quite  likely  that  there  are  modern  features  in  this  legend ; 
but  my  informant  assured  me  that  the  portion  relating  to  the  sky 
and  the  sun  was  very  old.  He  said  also  that  he  had  always  heard 
the  upper  world  described  as  related  in  the  legend.  Pie  added  that 
the  sun  loved  the  sound  of  w^ar,  and  would  linger  in  his  morning 
journey  to  see  a  battle,  but  that  after  he  reached  midheaven  he 
traveled  at  his  usual  speed. 

Mrs  Asher  Wright,  wdio  spoke  Seneca  perfectly,  and  who  labored 
as  a  missionary  among  them  for  tifty  years,  recorded  two  Seneca 
myths  as  they  had  been  related  to  her  by  Esquire  Johnson,  an  old 
Seneca  chief.  One  describes  the  origin  of  good  and  evil,  and  says 
that  the  sun  was  made  by  the  Good-minded  spirit  from  the  face  of 
his  mother.  That  legend  makes  the  tirst  woman  the  mother  of 
the  twins.  The  second  manuscript,  dated  1876,  relates  practically 
the  same  story,  but  mentions  the  Sky-woman  as  having  I)orne  first 
a  daughter,  who  became,  without  any  knowledge  of  man,  the  mother 
of  the  twins.  The  mother,  having  died  at  their  birth,  was  buried  by 
her  mother.  The  Sky-woman,  the  grandmother,  then  turned  and 
addressed  the  Good-minded  spirit,  according  to  Esquire  Johnson, 
quoted  by  Mrs  Wright,  as  follows: 

"  Now  you  must  go  and  seek  your  father.  When  you  see  him, 
you  must  ask  him  to  give  you  power."  Pointing  to  the  east,  she 
said,  "  He  lives  in  that  direction.  You  must  keep  on  until  you 
reach  the  limits  of  the  Island,  and  then  upon  the  waters  until  you 
reach  a  high  mountain  which  rises  up  out  of  the  water,  and  which 
you  must  climb  to  the  summit.  There  you  will  see  a  wonderful 
being  sitting  on  the  highest  peak.     You  must  say,  '  I  am  your  son.'  " 

The  "  wonderful  being  "  appears  from  the  succeeding  text  to  be 
the  sun,  although  not  specifically  so  named. 

^^'e  thus  have  three  conflicting  ideas  presented  —  the  sun  as  the 

136  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

messenger  of  the  Creator  and  as  the  patron  of  war,  as  the  face  of 
the  first  mother,  and  as  the  father  of  mankind  of  earthly  origin, 
although  this  latter  conclusion  may  be  disputed  by  some  for  lack  of 
a  definite  reference. 

This  leads  us  to  the  fact  that  Iroquois  mythology  in  its  present 
state  has  l)cen  derived  from  several  sources.  This  has  been  caused, 
without  doubt,  by  the  policy  of  adopting  the  remnants  of  conquered 
tribes.  Thus  we  may  expect  that  in  Iroquois  mythology  are  the  sur- 
vivals of  early  Huron,  Neutral,  Erie,  and  Andaste  elements.  It  is 
now  possible  to  trace  only  the  Huron.  Algonquian  elements  came 
in  through  the  Delaware,  the  Chippewa,  the  Shawnee,  the  Munsee, 
the  Mahikan,  and  possibly  the  Nanticoke.  It  is  not  difficult  to  trace 
Siouan  influence. 

The  writer  has  been  able  to  trace  some  of  the  influencing  ele- 
ments to  their  sources,  but  it  is  nevertheless  admitted  that  the  prob- 
lem of  critically  sifting  and  comparing  Iroquois  myths  is  a  delicate 

Related  by  Emily  Tallchief,  his  great  great  granddaughter 


"  Now  these  stories  are  true  and  came  to  Solomon  Obail  from 
Cornplanter,  and  Solomon,  my  father,  told  me. 

"  The  Cornplanter  reservation  Senecas  often  traveled  by  canoes 
down  the  Allegany  river  to  Pittsburgh.  On  a  certain  occasion 
Cornplanter  went  with  a  party  of  canoeists  down  the  Allegany  to 
Pittsburgh.  While  on  his  journey  one  of  the  paddlers  sang 
Woine'owi  as  he  paddled.  Now  as  he  sang  the  party  was  startled 
by  a  voice  that  called  from  the  cliff  above,  '  Halt  ye !  '  The  pad- 
dler  grounded  the  canoe  and  Cornplanter  went  ashore,  where, 
ascending  the  clifif,  he  found  a  number  of  Indians  gathered  about 
a  tree  to  which  a  white  man  was  bound.  '  So  now  Cornplanter,' 
said  the  chief  of  the  band,  '  I  have  called  you  to  kill  this  man.  You 
may  now  do  as  you  please  with  him  and  we  will  be  satisfied.' 
Cornplanter  drew  forth  his  long  lumling  knife  and  feeling  of  its 
sharp  edge  said  '  So  I  may  do  as  I  wish.  Truly  then  I  shall  do 
so.'  So  saying  he  rushed  toward  the  man  with  upraised  knife  and 
brought  it  down  with  a  flourish.  The  man  was  not  injured  but 
instead  stepi)ed  out  from  the  tree  free,  for  Cornplanter's  knife  had 
severed  the  thongs.  '  Now,'  said  Cornplanter,  after  some  conver- 
sation with  the  man,  '  I  will  hire  a  guide  to  take  this  man  back  to 


his  home  in  Philadelphia.'  A  warrior  accepted  the  commission  and 
guided  the  prisoner  safely  back  to  his  home  where  he  found  him  to 
be  a  man  of  prominence,  a  chief  among  his  people." 

"  So  I  say  this,"  added  Mrs  Tallchief,  "  to  show  that  my  grand- 
father was  a  good  man,  just  and  kind.  Because  of  these  qualities 
he  became  influential." 


"  Now  during  the  war  of  the  thirteen  fires  against  the  king  of 
Great  Britain,  we,  the  Iroquois,  were  loyal  to  our  old  allies,  the 
British.  We  fought  for  them,  but,  alas  for  us  they  were  beaten. 
Now  Washington,  the  great  leader  of  the  thirteen  fires,  was  deter- 
mined to  punish  us  for  our  part  in  the  war,  for  he  did  not  realize 
that  we  were  btit  keeping  our  treaties  with  the  British  when  we 
'  fought.  So  Washington  said,  '  Depart  from  among  us  and  go  to 
the  west  far  from  the  white  people."  But  Cornplantcr  said,  '  Not 
so.  We  are  determined  not  to  move.  We  have  long  lived  here  and 
intend  to  continue  in  our  own  territory  as  long  as  we  are  able  to 
hold  it.'  '  Not  so,'  answered  Washington,  '  you  fought  against  us 
and  therefore  you  must  move  on  to  the  west  and  if  you  refuse  we 
shall  compel  you.'  '  Then,'  answered  Cornplanter,  '  we  will  resist 
you  by  force  of  arms.  If  you  win  we  will  have  to  go,  otherwise  we 
will  remain  where  we  now  are.' 

"  Cornplanter  returned  from  Washington  to  his  people  and 
spread  the  news.  Quickly  it  traveled  among  all  the  Indians  to  the 
south,  the  east  and  the  west.  All  were  very  angry  and  said,  '  We 
will  fight.  W4ien  the  white  man  tries  to  move  us  as  they  please  it 
is  time  that  we  moved  a  few  white  men.'  Then  the  western  Indians 
began  to  massacre  the  settlers.  The  news  came  to  Washington. 
'  It  is  a  mistake  to  encourage  another  Indian  war,'  he  said  and  then 
sent  for  Cornplanter.  '  I  want  to  settle  our  difficulties,'  said  he, 
'  and  I  wish  peace.  I  do  not  wish  war,  therefore  you,  Cornplanter, 
must  pacify  your  people.'  '  I  care  not  to  meddle  further  with  mat- 
ters,' said  Cornplanter.  '  But  you  must  go,'  insisted  Washington, 
'  yoti  are  the  only  man  who  can  restore  peace  and  good  will.'  Thus 
it  was  that  Cornplanter  accepted  the  commission.  He  returned 
home  and  collecting  a  party  of  chiefs  sent  abroad  declarations  of 
peace.  The  delegation  went  through  Sandusky  into  the  farther 
west.  There  Cornplanter  called  a  council  and  said,  '  We  must  be 
peaceful  with  the  white  men  and  cease  tormenting  them.'  Now  the 
tribe  was  a  very  fierce  one  and  was  very  angry  that  Corni)lanter 

138  NEW    YORK    STATE    MUSEUM 

advised  peace.  They  mixed  poison  with  the  food  which  they 
served  the  delegation  and  a  number  died.  Cornplanter  also  was 
made  severely  ill.  Then  Cornplanter  became  very  angry  and  calling 
a  council  said,  '  Vou  have  acted  with  treachery.  Now  I  cease  to 
plead.  I  now  command  that  you  let  the  white  people  live  in  peace. 
Do  not  kill  another  one.  If  you  do  I  will  bring  the  whole  Five 
Nations  against  you  and  with  a  great  army  of  white  men  will  kill 
every  one  of  you.  The  Senecas  are  the  greatest  nation  of  all  na- 
tions and  whatever  they  plan  they  do.  We  are  always  successful 
and  always  victorious  in  sport,  debate  or  battle.  So  beware.'  Now 
the  western  Indians  councilled  among  themselves  and  said,  '  We 
must  hastily  agree  for  if  the  Senecas  come  against  us  we  surely  will 
be  defeated."  " 


"  Gaiant'wake",  the  great  chief,  once  went  to  Philadelphia. 

"  '  How  do  your  people  procure  food?  '  asked  a  white  man,  a 

"  '  We  are  hunters,'  answered  the  chief. 

"'Have  you  not  observed  our  great  fields  of  corn  and  grain?' 
asked  the  white  man,  '  and  did  you  know  that  we  never  have  famines 
as  you  do?  Why  do  your  people  not  cultivate  gardens  of  size  and 
till  large  fields  of  grain?' 

"  '  My  people  used  to  do  so,'  said  the  chief,  '  and  not  many  years 
ago  when  they  dwelt  in  the  valley  of  the  Genesee.  Now  I  think 
that  I  will  encourage  this  practice  again.' 

"  This  conversation  so  impressed  the  chief  that  when  he  returned 
he  spoke  of  the  matter  before  the  councils  and  exhorted  people  in 
private  to  plant  more  and  hunt  less.  Because  of  this  he  received 
the  name  of  The  Planter,  but  the  whites  called  him  Cornplanter." 



a  as  in  father,  bar ;  Germ,  haben 

a  the  same  sound  prolonged 

a  as  in  what;  Germ,  man 

a  as  in  hat,  man,  ran 

ai  as  in  aisle,  as  i  in  mine,  bind ;  Germ.  Hain 

au  as  ou  in  out,  as  ow  in  hozu;  Germ.  Hans 

c  as  sh  in  shall ;  Germ,  sch  in  schclleii ;  cio-sho  as    in  slimv 

d  pronounced  with  the  tip  of  the  tongue  touching  the  upper  teeth 

e  as  e  in  they,  as  a  in  may;  Fr.  ne 

e  as  in  met,  get,  then;  Germ,  denn;  Fr.  sienne 

g  as  in  gig;  Germ,  geben;  Fr.  gout 

h  as  in  has,  he;  Germ,   haben 

i  as  in  pique,  machine;  ie  as  ye  in  Enghsh  yea 

i  the  same  sound  prolonged  io  as  yo  in  you 

i  as  in  pick,  pit 

j  as  in  judge 

k  as  in  kick,  kin 

n  as  in  no,  nun,  not 

n  as  ng  in  ring,  sing 

o  as  in  note,  boat 

q  as  ch  in  Germ,  ich 

s  as  in  see,  sat 

t  pronounced  with  the  tip  of  the  tongue  on  the  upper  teeth 

u  as  in  rule;  Germ,  du;   Fr.  ou  in  doux 

u  as  in  rut,  shut 

w  as  in  zvit,  ivin 

y  as  in  yes,  yet 

dj  as  j   in  judge 

tc  as  ch  in  church;  tci-chce  as  in  cheese 

"  marks  nasalized  vowels  as  a",  e",  e",  o",  a",  ai",  etc. 

'  indicates  an  aspiration  or  soft  emission  of  the  breadth  which  is 

initial  or  final,  thus  'h,  e"',  o',  etc. 

'  marks  a  sudden  closure  of  the  glottis  preceding  or  following 

a  sound,  thus  'a,  o',  a',  a',  etc. 

'  marks  the  accented  syllable  of  a  word 
t  and  /;  in  this  system  are  always  pronounced  separately 




(For  key  to  pronunciation  see  page  139) 

Adanida'osha  (cooperative  labor),  39 

Adek\ve'o"ge  (green  corn  thanksgiving),  43 

AdTstowa'e  (feather  wearing;  name  apphed  to  conser- 

vative Indians  by  the  more  radical),  14 
meaning  snaky  headed),  5 
thanking  or  cheer  songs),  41  ;  figure,  84 
women's  dance),  loi 

Ado'"  we" 
Awe'yondo'  gawen 

Dagw  un'noyaent 
Degi'ya'go"  oa"no' 







Ende'ka  gaa"kwa 


Gahadi  yago 

the  funeral  address),  107 

the  wind  spirit),  119 

white  beaver),  119 

Thanksgiving),  103 

other  ceremony),  121 

Bufifalo  Society),  125 

exploding  wren),  119 

grassy  place),  75 

the  corn,  bean  and  squash  triad ;  the  word 

means.  They  sustain  us),  39,  54,  86 
Seneca  name  of  Pittsburgh) 
tree),  75 
Open   Door,    or   Door    Keeper,   name   of 

Seneca  war  sachem,  once  held  by  Gen. 

Ely  S.  Parker),  12 
place  of  burnt  houses ;  the  Seneca  name 

for  Cornplanter  village),  20,  52 
ghost  talker),  68 
truly  a  reply),  113 
daytime  brilliant  orb,  the  sun),  91 
it  was  once  that  way ;  the  closing  word  of 

each  section  of  the  Gai'  wiio') 
the  trotting  dance),  82,  loi 
fetid  banks),  Cattaraugus 
all,  everyone,  entirely),  33 
at  the  wood's  edge,  a  ceremony),  123 
The     Planter,     commonly     called     Corn- 
planter.    A  Seneca  pine  tree  chief  name. 

The  half  brother  of  Handsome  Lake),  23, 

24,  44,  50 































(an  r'dos  ceremony),  123 

(the  sharp  point;  a  ceremony),  123 

(meaning  the  good  message  ;  pronounced  as 

if  spelled  guy-we-you),  5,  6,  26,  43 
(the  Christian  religion),  57 
(husk  false  face),  129 
(to  copulate),  73 

(she  is  a  gluttonous  beast,  a  name),  74 
(great  bowl  game),  41 
(midwinter  ceremony),  81 
(the  Eagle  dance  song),  124 
(the  harvest   thanksgiving  ceremony),  21, 

(Handsome  or  Beautiful  Lake,  the  title  of 

the  sachem  name  held  by  the  prophet),  5, 

18,  22,  46,  80 
(night  song),  1 16 
(Kittle  Hangs,  a  name),  74 
(name  of  Onondaga),  76 
(house  of  the  tormentor),  56 
(fetid  water,  Seneca  name  for  their  village 

near  present  site  of  Avon,  Livingston  co., 

N.  Y.),  9.  78 
(in  the  rapids,  name  of  Warren,  Pa.),  20 
(Ga-nun-da-se,    meaning    a    tozvii    nc^v   or 

Newtown.         Name      of      non-Christian 

Seneca  village  on  Cattaraugus  reservation) 

(place   of   a   new   town;   Seneca   name   of 

Geneva),  79 
(long  house  people),  7 
(witchcraft),  2/ 
(compelling  charm:  charm  used  to  com])el 

persons  to  obey  the  charm  holder),  29,  30 
(tobacco  thrown  down,  "  Dipped  "'  Tobacco, 

a  woman's  name),  24 
(a  lying  tale,  slander),  t,/ 
(drunken) .  20 

(Large  Talker,  a  name),  74 
(jug  shaking  dance),  lOi 
( an  exclamation   in  the  gane'wo  song) ,  85, 




Hadid  j  i'y  ontwus 






Hodianok'doo"  He/d' 






(ha-nis-se'-o-no,  the  devil),  18 

(new  year  announcers),  82 

(the  new  year  ceremony),  75 

(False  Face  company),  127 

(they  are  messengers;  the  four  angels),  19, 

(the  thunderers),  98 

(male),  yz 

(Hai-yon'-went-ha,     a      sachemship     titlo 

meaning,  he     has   lost   it   and   searches, 

knowing  ivhere  to  find  it.     The  Seneca 

name  for  Hiawatha) 
(new  year  ceremonial  officers),  82 
(exalted    name,    the    word    applied  to    a 

chief),  44 
(the  son-in-law  of  Handsome  Lake),  23 
(good  ruler,  God ;  the  name  mostly  used  by 

the  Christian  Seneca),  48,  133 
(tobacco  throwing  ceremony),  121 
(a  clairvoyant),  49 
(the  Thunderer),  104 

(the  Creator),  19,  48 

(white  man),  20 

(a  nest),  47 

(overseer  of  the  ceremonies),  411,  421 

(the  guardian  company),  116 

(company    of    charm    holders;    note    that 

"  tci  "     is     pronounced     as     ''  chee "     in 

cheese) ,  1 19 
(nol)le  l)orn,  good  in  character,  applied  as  a 

title    to    sachems.      The    Mohawk    form 

Rhoya'ne'       is       sometimes       translated 

"  lord  "),  9,  22 
(a  charm  society),  121,  122 
(a  great  horned  serpent),  119 
(elves  of  p\gmies),  119 
(New  \'oice,  a  man's  name),  76 
(small  bundle  of  magic  substance),  29 
(great    naked    bear    or    mammoth    bear,    a 

mythical  l)cast),  28;  footnote,  40;  119 































(bear,  bear  ceremony),  125 

(thanks  are  given),  36 

(thank  you,  you  are  strong),  a  greeting,  133 

(Httle  water)  a  niecHcine  powder,  116 

(so  be  it,  or  it  is  weH,  "  all  right '"),  22 

(name  of  a  month),  86 

(nis-ko'-wuk-ni,  the  moon  of  midwinter), 

6,  53 

(spirit),  133 

(a  dance,  or  society) 

(the  veil  over  the  world),  67 

(Sunsliine,  a  name),  117 

(Pudding  Dry,  a  man's  name),  24 

(the  death  chant,  a  ceremony),  21,  26,  50, 

(river  beautiful,  name  api)lied  to  the  .Alle- 
gany river),  20 

(ceremonial  officers,  "buffalo  robed"),  81 

(whiskey  or  rum),  9,  27 

(real  men,  Iroquois),  18,  45 

(Ohgwe''-ohwe-ka',  literally,  men  beings — 
real  —  emphatically  so),  6 

(witch  poison),  29,  /2 

(meaning,  upon  the  hills) 

(Great  Feather  dance,  the  chief  religious 
dance),  2=,,  42 

(wampum  ) ,  ^y 

(sharp  bone  charm),  119 

(it  is  blazing,  a  ceremony),  123 

(road  bad  :  a  rough  road),  69 

(dried  hand  charm),  119 

(pronounced  Sa-go-ye'-wa-t'ha' ;  means,  he 
keeps  them  awake.  Name  of  Red  Jacket, 
a  Seneca  leader  and  orator),  68 

(you  come  to  eat),  36 

(early  in  the  morning),  6 

(Se-dwa'-go-wfi'-ne')  Teacher-great,  name 
applied  to  Handsome  Lake,  71  ;  footnote, 

53 ;  ('7 
(He  resitrreets ;   Christ),  67 
(the  tormentor,  devil),  48 



















Wa''da  Tadinion'nio'o' 










(a  man's  name),  57 

(the  Eagle  ceremony),  124 

(the  false  face  spirit  chief),   128 

(the  death  herald),  106 

(Seneca  name  of  Owen  Black  Snake),  19 

(strength,  health),  133 

(night  shining  orb,  the  moon),  92 

(name  of  Handsome  Lake's  grandson  and 

one  of  his  successors,  the  grandfather  of 

Gen.  Ely  S.  Parker.     English  name  was 

James  Johnson),  12,  19 
(S'o-son'-do-wa,  Night-Great,  the  teacher  of 

Handsome   Lake's   religious   code.     His 

English    name    is    Edward    Cornplanter, 

q.  v.),  5,   16,   19,  80 
(Awl    Breaker,    sometimes    called    Needle 

Breaker.    The  name  of  a  Seneca  chief), 


(a  masculine  proper  name),  60 

(heaven  world),  69 

(pigeon  dance),  82 

(a  ceremony),  123 

(grandfather),  91 

(cornplanting  ceremony),  loi 

(maple  thanksgiving),  102 

(to  throw  up  the  paddle,  meaning,  "it  is 
finished,"  a  ceremonial  term),  82 

(the  death  feast),  no 

(Sioux;  means  also  warlike),   103 

(month  of  May),  20 

( a  woman),  33 

(a  thieving  woman),  39 

(the  women  s  song  ceremony),  21,  26 

(a  society  having  animal  charms;  the  "  So- 
ciety of  Mystic  Animals":  see  I'Mos), 

(pygmy  dance  ceremony),  120 

(she  commits  abortion),  30 


Abortion,  30;  30   (footnote) 

Air  regulator,  67 

Allegany,  5,  6,  7,   15 

Allegany  Seneca,   15 

Alphabet,  139 

Anecdotes  of  Cornplanter,  136 

Animal  totem,  39;  societies,  39;  40 
(footnote),  113;  ordered  dis- 
banded, 114;  are  ancient,  115;  ta- 
bued,   115 

Authorized  teachers,  5 

Avon,  9,  78 

Bear,  great  naked,  119 

Bear,  mammoth,  28 

Bear  society,  125 

Beauchamp,  Dr  William   M.,  quoted, 

Beaver,  white,  a  charm,  119 
Bible  believers,   64 
Blacksnake,  Owen,  19 
Blue  panther,   119 
Bluesky,  William,  8 
Boasting,  denounced,  2)7 
Buffalo  Creek  reservation  treaty,   7, 

64,  78 
Buffaloes,  sacred,  43 
Buffalo  society,  125;   dance  of,  plate 

Bundle,  magic,  29 

Cattaraugus,  5,  6 

Cattaraugus,   Seneca,   7,    15 

Ceremony  of  herb  gathering,   54 

Ceremony,  New  Year  {sec  Mid- 
winter), 75 

Ceremonies,  special,   103 

Charm,   members,   119 

Charms,  witch,  28;  Seneca  name, 
30;  30  (footnotes);  corn,  54;  so- 
ciety for,  119;  good  and  evil,   120 

Children,  punishment  of,  Z2>  '•  Hand- 
some   Lake's    love    of,    33     (foot- 

note) ;  treatment  of,  34 ;  warnings 
of,  34;  sin  of  defaming,  3^',  hospi- 
tality toward,  36;   destitute,  36 

Christ,  section  74,  67 

Christian   Indians,  6,    14 

Ciiristian  influence,   11 

Civil   war,    13 

Clairvoyant,    49 

Cold  Spring,  7,  12,  46,  76 

Columbus,  Christopher,   18 

Command  to  preach,  26 

Cooperation,   39 

Conservative   Indians,   ideas,    14 

Converts,  6,   7 

Corn  bug,   119 

Cornplanter  creek,  20 

Cornplanter,  Edward,  photograph, 
plate  2,  5,  6,  8;  quoted,  13;   132 

Cornplanter  (sec  also  Gyantwaka  or 
Gaiantwaka),   11 

Cornplanter  village,  12,  20,  61 

Cornplanting  thanksgiving,  54 

Corn,  spirit,  47;  medicine,  54;  plant- 
ing of,  54;   drawing,  plate   12 

Customs   changed,   56 

Customs,  mourning,  107 

Creator,  18,  19,  21,  22,  25,  26,  27  to 
So;  controversy  with  devil,  48 

Dances,  39:  four  sanctioned,  41,  51, 

Dark  dance,   119 

Daughter  of  Handsome  Lake,  22 
Dead  man   reviews,   24 
Dearborn,    General,    letter    from,    10 
Death  chant,  21,   126;   drawing,  plate 

Death,  coming  of,  a  legend,   105    . 
Death  feast,  57,  126 
Deer,  sacred,  43 
Devil.   loi 
Discoverv  of  America,  16 




Discussion    between    good    and    evil 

spirits,   48 
Diviner,  49 
Division    of    Iroquois,    religious,    13, 

55,  55  (footnote),  57 
Dog,    {see  White  dog),  66 
Drunkenness,  9,  10,  20,  45,  54 
Dry  hand,  119 

Eagle,  society  of,  124 

Education,  38 

Effects  of  Handsome  Lake's  religion, 

10,  11;  discussion  of,  14 
Effigies,    131 
Elves,    119 

Emotion,  religious,  6 
End   of   world,  44;   signs   of,   57;   by 

fire,  59 
Evil  of  drink,  54,  61 
Evil   spirit    {sec  also   Devil),   s6,   59, 


Fairies,  119 

False  Face  company,  127 ;  ceremony, 

Family  life,  2>^,  23,;  lack  of  children, 

35;  meals,  36;  picture  of,  plate  4  • 
Fees  for  healing,  56 
Finger  nail  parings,  120 
Five  evils,  the,   17,  18 
Folk  cults,  116;  influence,  130 
Four  messengers,  24,  25,  yy 
Frauds  against  Iroquois,   10 
Funeral    customs,    57,    107;    address, 


Gaenendasaga,  12,  79 

Gaiant'waka,  23,  50 

Gai'wiio',  5:  time  of  preaching,  6; 
present  form,  7;  as  a  divine  mes- 
sage, 26 

Gane'o"wo°  ceremony,  95 

Ganio'dai'io  {see  also  Handsome 
Lake),  9,  18,  19;  teachings  of,  20, 
80,  114  {see  glossary) 

Gano°'wages,   12,  78 

Gardening,    methods,    39    (footnote) 

Gibson,  Chief  John,  6 

Glossary  of  Seneca  words 

God  {see  Cr&diXor,  Great  Ruler,  Good 

Godiont,  41 

Good  Hunter,  117 

Good  Minded   {sec  Good  Spirit),  15, 

Good    Spirit    (also   Great  Ruler  and 
Good  Minded),  15,  16,  19,  21,  105, 

Grand  River,  6,  131 
Great  Message,  27 
Green  corn  ceremony,  43 
Graves    at     Grand     River,     Ontario, 

plate  6 

Handsome  Lake,  teachings  of,  5 ; 
biography,  9;  successful  ministry, 
10;  value  of  his  teaching,  11; 
revolutionized  social  life,  11;  fail- 
ures, 11;  residence  at  Tonawanda, 
11;  ideas  from  Bible,  il;  death,  13, 
80;  method  of  thinking,  21;  sick- 
ness, 21;  reviled,  47;  influence  of, 

Handsome  Lake's  teachings,  27,  80, 

Handsome  Lake's  monument,  plate  9 

Handsome  Lake  preaching,  draw-ing, 
plate    15 

Harrington,  M.  R.,  mentioned,  128 

Harrison,  Gen.  William  H.,  66  (foot- 

Harvest  song,  21 

Heaven,  see  Three  brothers,  134 

Herald  of  death,  119 

Herbs,  medicine  song  of,  55)  healing, 

Honon'diont,  41,  42 

Horned  serpent,  119 

House  of  Torment  (also  of  pun- 
isher),  62:  description,  63,  64,  70 

Hunters,  father  and  son,  52;  mur- 
dered, 52 

Huron,  introduce  the  I"dos,  123 

Hurricane,    spirit,    drawing,   plate    19 

Husk  false  faces,  129 

Idea  of  soul,  61 

r'dos      ceremony,      photograph      of, 

plate  21 
Indian   religious  communities,   7 
Insanit\-,  47 



Invocation  over  corn,  54 
Iroquois  Confederacy,  10 
Iroquois    disheartened,    10 

Jacket,  John,  7,  8 

Jealousy,    results    of,    45    (footnote) 
Jefferson,    President    Thomas,    men- 
tioned,  10 
Journey  over  sky  road,  62 

Key  to  pronunciation,   lyy 
Kittle,  Chief  Delos,  quoted,  127 

Lay,  Skidmore,  ceremony  related  hy, 

Life  of  Handsome  Lake,  q 

Life  substance,  65 

Little  water  company,  116 

Logan,  Chief  Frank,  5 

Long  house,  picture,  plate  i  ;  at  New- 
town, plate  3 ;  at  Tonawanda, 
plate  3 ;  at  Onondaga,  plate  5 ;  at 
Pine  Woods,  Cattaraugus,  plate  5 ; 
Upper  Cayuga,  Grand  River,  Ont., 
plate  6;  Seneca,  Canada,  plate  7; 
Onondaga,  Canada,  plate  8;  en- 
virons of  Cayuga,  plate  8. 

Magic  animals,   no 

Magic   bundles,   20 

Marriage,  31,  32 

Masks,  spirit.   123 

Medicine    outfit,    picture.    118 

Midwinter   ceremony,   6:    sanctioned, 

Milky  Way,  62   (footnote) 
Moon  dance,   103 

Morgan,  Lewis  H..  12;  quoted,  113 
Morning  song.  51 
Mourning  customs,  57,  107 
Murderer  discovered,   drawing,  plate 


New  religion,  5.  13,  115 
Newtown,  7 
New  World,  47 
Night  song,  116 

Obail,  Henry,   11,  80   (footnote) 
Old  people,  35 

Oneidas.  Canadian,  8;   inentiDiied,    14 
Oneg'a    (rum),   27 
Onondaga,  7,  12,   14,  76,  78 
Ostowii'go'wa,  42 

Otters,  society  of,  121  ;  drawing, 
plate  2;^ 

Parker,  Gen.  Ely  S.,   12;  descendant 

of  prophet,   12 
Phonetic  system,  key  to,  I3() 
Pittsburgh,  20 
Poison,  secret,  20 

Poverty,   esteemed    15,  63    (footnote) 
Progressive  Indians,  14 
Prophet,  given  power  to  sec  in  earth, 

Punishment    for  evil,  71,  72,  74 
Purification,   77    (footnote) 
Pygmy    society,    no;    ojiening    cere- 
mony,  120 

Recitation,  second  day,  t,^;  third 
day,  60 

Red  Jacket  (scc  also  Sagoyewatha ) 
accused,  66  (footnote)  ;  punish- 
ment of,  68   (section  95) 

Religion,  Indian,  15 

Repentance,  song  of,  20 

Reservations,   5,    14 

Revival,  Indian  religious,  6 

Kites    and    ceremonies,    notes    (jii.    Si 

Ixoad,  narrow,  74 

Road,   sky,  62.  60,   70 

St  Regis,  7.  14 

.Secret   medicine   for  corn,   54 

Secret  medicine  societies.  n3; 
tabued.    115 

Seneca  (sec  also  Allegany.  Cattarau- 
gus and   Tonawanda).  5 

Serpent,    n;   horned,    iiQ 

.Sharp  legs.  119 

Sick  man,  drawing,  pl.ite  11 

Sickness  of   Handsome    Lake,  22 

Sins,  44 

.Sisters  of  Diohe"ko".   126 

Slander,  s~ 

Societies.  40.  40  (footnote),  50,  113, 
it6,  130 

Society  of  Friends,  10 



Social  relations  of  mankind,  36 

Song,  lost,  50 

Sorrow,  57 

Sos'heowa,  12,   19 

Soson'dowa  (see  also  Edward  Corn- 
planter),  16 

Soul,  ideas  of,  61 

S])irit  of  the  corn,  47;  drawing, 
plate   12 

Stevens,  Henry,  8 

Stinginess,  62 

Stone  giant  mask,  127 

Strawberries,  feast,  25 ;  medicine,  25 

Sun  dance,  103 

Sun  niytlis,   131 

Taa'wonyas   (Awl  Breaker),  23 

Tlianksgiving,  51;   song,  84 

Three  brothers,  a  legend,  132 

Thunder  dance,  103 

Tobacco,  49 

Tonawanda,  11,  12,  47,  68,  76 

Tonawanda  Seneca,  14 

Tonwiisas,     drawing     of     ceremony, 

plate  10 
Tormentor,  48 
Translation,   8 
Trouble,  time  of,  20;   drawing,  plate 

Tuscarora,   14 

Unbelief  in  Gai'wiio',  S7 

Underworld,  43 

Wampum,  6,  ^7 
Warren,   Pa.,  20 
War  in  heaven,  48 
Warriors'  charm,  30    (footnote) 
Washington,  George,  66,  137 
White     dog     ceremony,     85  ;     photo- 
graph, plate  20 
WHiite  race,  how  it  came  to  America, 

16;  Seneca  name  for,  3  (footnote), 

20;  economics  of,  38 
Wiiipping     of     foolish     women,     46; 

drawing,  plate  13 
Wife,  treatment  of,  32 
Wind  spirit,  119;  drawing,  plate   K) 
Winter,  ceremonies  (see  Midwinter) 
Witchcraft,     27;     27-29     (footnote), 

Witch  doctors,  29   (footnote) 
Women's     dance,    21;     drawing    of, 

plate  16 
Women's  society,  126 
Women's  song,  21 
Women,  wise  ways  for,  37:   foolish, 

whipped,  46 
Wren,  exploding,  a  charm,  i  ig 
Wright,  Rev.  Asher,  7;  Mrs  Wright, 


New  York  State  Education  Department 
New  York  State  Museum 
John  M.  Clarke,  Director 

Packages  will  be  sent  prepaid  except  when  distance  or  weight  renders  the 
same  impracticable.  On  lo  or  more  copies  of  any  one  publication  20% 
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and  payable  to  New  York  State  Education  Department. 

Museum  annual  reports  1847-date.  All  in  print  to  1894,  50c  a  volume,  75c  in 
cloth;  i&g^-diitc,  sold  in  sets  only;  75c  each  for  octavo  volumes;  price  of 
quarto  volumes  on  application.    ^ 

These  reports  are  made  up  of  the  reports  of  the  Director,  Geologist,  Paleontologist, 
Botanist  and  Entomologist,  and  museum  bulletins  and  memoirs,  issued  as  advance  sections 
of  the  reports.         ,  / 

Director's  annual  reports  1904-date. 

1004.  138P.   201--.  1909.  2.500.  4ipl.   2  maps.  4  charts.      Out  of  print 

1905.  io2p.   23pl.  30c.  1910.  28op.   ii.   42pl.    50;. 

1906.  i86p.  4ipl.    25c.  igii.  2i8p.   40pl.   50c. 

1907.  2i2p.  63pl.    50c.  1912.  In  press. 
J908.  234p.  39pl.   map.  400. 

These  reports  cover  the  reports  of  the  Stat3  Geilo:;ist  and  of  the  State  Paleontologist- 
Bound  also  with  the  museum  reports  of  which  they  form  a  part. 

Geologist's  annual  reports  i88i-date.  Rep'ts  i,  3-13,  17-date:,  8vo;  2, 
14-16,  4to. 

In  1898  the  paleontologic  work  of  the  State  was  made  distinct  from  the  geologic  and  was 
reported  separately  from  1899-1903.  The  two  departments  were  reunited  in  1904,  and  are 
now  reported  in  the   Director's  report. 

The  annual  reports  of  the  original  Natural  History  Survey,  1837-41,  are  out  of  print. 
Reports  1-4,  1881-84,  were  published  only  in  separate  form.  Of  the  sth  report  4  I>ages 
were  reprinted  in  the  39th  museum  report, and  a  supplement  to  the  6th  report  was  included 
in  the  40th  museum  report.  The  7th  and  subsetjuent  reports  are  included  in  th  41st  and 
following  museum  reports,  except  that  certain  lithograohic  plates  in  the  iith  report  (1891) 
and  13th  (1893)  are  omitted  from  the  45th  and  47th  museum  reports. 

Separate  volumes  of  the  following  only  are  available. 

Report      Price  Report      Price 

17  $.75  21  $.40 

18  .75  22  .40 

19  -40  23  .45 

20  .50  [See  Director's  annual  reports] 

Paleontologist's  annual  reports  1899-date. 

See  first  note  under  Geologist's  annual  reports. 

Bo.ind  also  with  museum  reports  of  which  they  form  a  part.  Reports  for  1899  and  1900 
may  b-:-  had  for  20c  each.  Those  for  1901-3  were  issued  as  bulletins.  In  1904  combined 
with  the  Director's  report. 

Entomologist's  annual  reports  on  the  injurious  and  other  insects  of  the 
State  of  New  York  1882-date. 

Reports  3-20  bound  also  with  museum  reports  40-46,  48-58  of  which  they  form  a  part. 
Since  1898  these  reports  have  been  issued  as  bulletins.  Reports  3-4,  17  are  out  of  print, 
other  reports  with  prices  are: 



12    (1892) 

IS.     2V. 





t    Price 




■  30 




•  IS 











21  (Bui 

104)  S .  25 

22  (  ' 

no)      .25 

^^  \  \ 

124)      .75 

24  (  ' 

134)      .35 

25  (  ' 

141)      .35 

26  (  " 

147)      .35 

27  (  ' 

155)      .40 

28  In 


Report  Price 

n  $.25 

12  .25 

13'  Out  of  print 

14  (Bui.  23)   .20 

15  (  "       31)   .15 

16  (  "  36)  .25 
18  (  "  64)  .20 
IQ  (  "  67)  .15 
20  (  "        97)  -40 

Reports  2,  8-12  may  also  be  obtained  bound  in  cloth  at  250  each  in  addition  to  the  price 
given  above. 

Botanist's  annual  reports  1867-date. 

Bound  also  with  museum  reports  21-date  of  which  they  form  a  part;  the  first  Botanist's 
report  appeared  in  the  21st  museum  report  and  is  numbered  21.  Reports  21-24,  29,  31-41 
were  not  published  separately. 

Separate  reports  for  1871-74,  1876,  1888-98  are  out  of  print.  Report  for  1899  maybe  had 
for  20c:  1900  for  soc.      Since   1901    these  reports  have  been  issued  as  bulletins. 

Descriptions  and  illustrations  of  edible,  poisonous  and  unwholesome  fungi  of  New  York 
have  also  been  published  in  volumes  i  and  3  of  the  48th  (1894)  museum  report  and  in  volume 
I  of  the  49th  (1895),  51st  (1897),  52d  (1898),  5.4th  (1900),  55th  (1901),  in  volume  4  of  the 
S6th  (1902),  in  volume  2  of  the  S7th  (1903),  in  volume  4  of  the  58th  (1904),  in  volume  2 
of  the  S9th  (1905),  in  volume  i  of  the  60th  (1906),  in  volume  2  of  the  6ist  (1907),  62d 
(1908),  63d  (1909),  64th  (1910),  6sth  (1911)  reports.  The  descriptions  and  illustrations  of 
edible  and  unwholesome  species  contained  in  the  49th,  51st  and  52d  reports  have  been  re- 
vised and  rearranged,  and,  combined  with  others  more  recently  prepared,  constitute  Museum 
Memoir  4. 

Museum  bulletins  1887-date.      Svo.     To  advance  subscribers,  $2  a  year,  or  $1 
d^  year  for  division  (i)  geology,  economic  geology,  paleontology,  mineralogy; 

50c  each  for  division  (2)  general  zoology,  archeology,  miscellaneous,  (3)  botany, 

(4)  entomology. 

Bulletins  are  grouped  in  the  list  on  the  following  pages  according  to  divisions. 
•     The  divisions  to  which  bulletins  belong  are  as  follows: 

no  Entomo'.ogj^ 

111  Geology 

112  Economic  Geology 

113  Archeology 

114  Geology 

116  Botany 

117  Archeology 

118  Geology 

119  Economic  Geology 

1 20  " 

121  Director's  report  for  1907 

122  Botany 

123  Economic  Geology 

124  Entomology 

125  Archeology 

126  Geology 

127  " 

129  Entomology 

130  Zoology 

131  Botany 

132  Economic  Geology 

133  Director's  report  for  1908 

134  Entomology 

135  Geology 

136  Entomology 

137  Geology 

139  Botany 

140  Director's  report  for  1909 

141  Entomology 

142  Economic  Geology 

144  Archeology 

145  Geology 

146  " 

147  Entomology 

148  (ieology 

149  Director's  report  for  1910 

150  Botany 
IS  I   Economic  Geology 
152  Geology 

154  ^    " 

155  Entomology 

157  Botany 

158  Director's  report  for  1911 

1 59  Geology 

160  " 

161  Economic  Geology 

I  I    Zoology 

2  Botany 

3  Economic  Geology 

4  Mineralogy 

5  Entomology 

7  Economic  Geology 

8  Botany-   j 

9  Zoology 

10   Economic  Geology 

13  Entomoiogy 

14  Geology 

15  Economic  Geology 

16  Archeology^ 

17  Economic  Geology 

18  Archeology 

19  Geology 

20  Entomology 

21  Geology 

22  Archeology 

23  Entomology 

25  Botany 

26  Entomology 

28  Botany 

29  Zoology 

30  Economic  Geology 

31  Entomology 

32  Archeology 

33  Zoology 

34  Geology 
3  5    Economic  Geology 
36   Entomology 
3  7 

38  Zoology 

39  Paleontology 

40  Zoology 

41  Archeology 

42  (ieolo-;y 

43  Zoology 

44  Economic  Geology 

45  Paleontology 

46  Entomology 

48  Geology 

49  Paleontology 

50  -Archeology 

51  Zoology 

52  Paleontology 

53  Entomology 

54  Botany 

55  Archeology 

56  Geology 
5  7   Entomology 

58  Mineralogy 

59  Entomology 

60  Zoology 

61  Economic  Geology 

62  Miscellaneous 

63  Geology 

64  Entomology 

65  Paleontology 

66  Miscellaneous 

67  Botany 

68  Entomology 

69  Paleontology 

70  Mineralogy 

7 1  Zoology 

72  Entomology 

73  Archeology 

74  Entomology 

75  Botany 

76  Entomology 

77  Geology 

78  Archeology 

79  Entomology 

80  Paleontology 

81  Geology 

83        " 

85  Economic  Geology 

86  Entomology 

87  Archeology 

88  Zoology 

89  .-Xrcheology 

90  Paleontology 

91  Zoology 

92  Paleontology 

93  Economic  Geology 

94  Botany 

95  Geology 

97  Entomology 

98  Mineralogy 

99  Paleontology 

100  Economic  Geology 

1 01  Paleontology 

102  Economic  Geology 

103  Entomology 

104  " 

105  Botany 

106  Geology 

107  Geology  and  Paleontology  162  G;o!ogy 

108  .Archeology  163  Archeology 

109  Entomology 


Bulletins  are  also  found  with  the  annual  reports  of  the  museum  as  follows: 

















57.  V. 







64,  V.  2 






57,  V. 

1,   pt    2 






64,   V.  2 






57,  V. 

I,   pt    I 






64,  V.  2 






S8,  V. 


1 19-21 





64,  V.  2 

26-3  I 





58,  V. 







64,  V.   2 






58,  V. 







6s,  V.  2 






58,  V. 







65,  V.  2 






58,  V. 







65,  V.  2 






S8,  V. 







65,  V.   I 






58,  V. 







65,  V.    I 






S8,  V. 







6s,  V.  I 






58,  V. 







65,  V.  2 






58.  V. 







65,  V.    I 






58,  V. 











58.  V. 












59,  V. 







49,  V.  3 






59,  V. 







53,  V.  2 






59.  V. 







57.  V.  3 






59.  V. 







5  7.  V.  4 






59.  V. 






8,  pt 


59.  V.  3 






59.  V. 






8,  pt 


59,  V.  4 






60,  V. 






9.  pt 


60,  V.  4 






60,  V. 






9.  pt 


62,  V.  4 





Pt    I 

109, 1 10 

60,  V. 







60,  V.  5 

7  2 




Pt    2 


00,  V. 






I  I 

6 1 ,  V.  3 





I  12 

60,  V. 


I  46 




I  2 

6^,  V.  3 




I  , 

Pt    2 


60,  V. 







63.  V.  4 






60,  V. 






14.  V. 


65,  V.  3 





pt    2 


60,  V. 






lA.  V. 


65,  V.  4 




I  , 

pt    I 

The  figures  at  the  beginning  of  each  entry  in  the  following  list  indicate  its  number  as  a 
museum  bulletin. 

Geology  and  Paleontology.  14  Kemp,  J.  F.  Geology  of  Moriah  and  West- 
port  Townships,  Essex  Co.  N.  Y.,  with  notes  on  the  iron  mines.  38p. 
il.   7pl.   2   maps.    Sept.   1895.      Free. 

19  Merrill,  F.  J-  H.  Guide  to  the  Study  of  the  Geological  Collections  of 
the  New  York  State  Museum.     i64p.  i  iqpl.  map.    Nov.  1898.   Out  of  print. 

21  Kemp,  J.  F.  Geology  of  the  Lake  Placid  Region.  24p.  ipl.  map.  Sept. 
1898.      Free. 

34  Cumings,  E.  R.  Lower  Silurian  System  of  Eastern  Montgomery  County; 
Prosser,  C.  S.  Notes  on  the  Stratigraphy  of  Mohawk  Valley  and  Sara- 
toga County,  N.  Y.     74p.  i4pl.  map.     May  1900.      15c. 

39  Clarke,  J.  M.;  Simpson,  G.  B.  &  Loomis,  F.  B.  Paleontologic  Papers  r. 
72p.  il.  i6pl.      Oct.   1900.      15c. 

Contents:  Clarke,  J.  M.      .\  Remarkable  Occurrence  of  Orthoceras  in  the  Oneonta  Beds  of 

the  Chenango  Valley.  N.  Y. 
Paropsonema    cryptophya;    a    Peculiar    Echinoderm    from    the     Intumescens-zone 

(Portage   Beds)   of   Western   New  York. 

Dictyonine  Hexactinellid  Spongjs  from  the  Upper  Devonic  of  New  York. 

The  Water  Biscuit  of  Squaw  Island,  Canandaigua  Lake,  N.  Y. 

Simpson,  G.  B.      Preliminary  Descriptions  of  New  Genera  of  Paleozoic  Rugose  Corals. 
Loomis,   F.   B.      Siluric   Fungi  from   Western   New  York.  j 

42  Ruedemann,  Rudolf.  Hudson  River  Beds  near  Albany  and  their  Taxo- 
nomic  Equivalents.      ii6p.  apl.  map.     Apr.   1901.      25c. 

45  Grabau,  A.  W.  Geology  and  Paleontology  of  Niagara  Falls  and  Vicinity. 
2  86p.  il.   i8pl.  map.     Apr.   1901.      65c;  cloth,  90c. 

48  Woodworth,  J.  B.  Pleistocene  Geology  of  Nassau  County  and  Borough 
of  Queens.      sSp.  il.   8pl.  map.     Dec.   1901.      25c. 

49  Ruedemann,  Rudolf;  Clarke,  J.  M.  &  Wood,  Elvira.  Paleontologic 
Papers  2.      240P.  i3pl.      Dec.  1901.      Out  of  print. 

Contents:     Ruedemann.   Rudolf.     Trenton  Conglomerate  of   Rysedorph   Hill. 

Clarke,  J.  M.  Limestones  of  Central  and  Western  New  York  Interbedded  with  Bitumi- 
nous Shales  of  the  Marcellus  Stage. 

Wood,  Elvira.      Marcellus  Limestones  of  Lancaster,  Erie  Co.,  N.   Y. 

Clarke,  J.  M.      New  .\gelacrinites. 

— -^  Value  of  Amnigenia  as  an  Indicator  of  Fresh-water  Deposits  during  the  Devonic  of 
New  York,  Ireland  and  the  Rhineland. 

52  Clarke,  J.  M.      Report  of  the  State  Paleontologist  1901.      28op.   il.   lopl. 

map,  I  tab.     July  1902.     40c. 
56  Merrill,  F.  J.  H.     Description  of  the  State  Geologic  Map  of  190  i.      42p. 

2  maps,  tab.      Nov.   1902.      Free. 


63   Clarke,  J.  M.  &  Luther,  D.  D.      Stratigraphy  of  Canandaigua  and  Naples 

Quadrangles.      78p.  map.     June   1904.      25c. 
65  Clarke,  J.  M.     (Catalogue  of  Type  Specimens  of  Paleozoic  Fossils  in  the 

Xew  York  State  Museum.      848P.     May  1903.     $1.20,  cloth. 
69 ■  Report  of  the  State  Paleontologist  1902.     464P.  52pl.  7  maps.      Nov. 

1903.      $1,  clotli. 
77  Gushing,  H.  P.     Geology  of  the  Vicinity  of  Little  Falls,  Herkimer  Co. 

98p.  il.   i5pl.   2  maps.     Jan.   1905.      30c. 

80  Clarke,  J.  M.  Report  of  the  State  Paleontologist  1903.  396p.  29pl. 
2    maps     Feb.   1905.     85c,  cloth. 

81  Clarke,  J.  M.  &  Luther,  D.  D.  Watkins  and  Elmira  Quadrangles.  32p. 
map.  Mar.  1905.      25c. 

82 (ieologic  Map  of  the  TuUy  Quadrangle.      4op.  map.     Apr.  1905.      20c. 

83  Woodworth,  J.  B.  Pleistocene  Geology  of  the  Mooers  Quadrangle.  62p, 
2  5pl.  map.      June  1905.      25c. 

84  Ancient  Water  Levels  of  the  Champlain  and  Hudson  Vallevs.      2o6p. 

il.  iipl.   18  maps.     July  1905.      45c. 

90  Ruedemann,  Rudolf.  Cephalopoda  of  Beekmantown  and  Chazy  For- 
inations  of  Champlain  Basin.      224p.  il.  38pl.     May  1906.      75c,  cloth. 

92  Grabau,  A.  W.  Guide  to  the  Geology  and  Paleontology  of  the  Schoharie 
Region.      3i4p.  il.  26pl.  map.     Apr.  1906.      75c,  cloth. 

95  Gushing,  H.  P.  Geology  of  the  Northern  Adirondack  Region.  i88p. 
i5pl.  3  maps.      Sept.   1905.     30c. 

96  Ogilvie,  L  H.  Geology  of  the  Paradox  Lake  Quadrangle.  54p.  il.  i7pl. 
map.      Dec.   1905.      30c. 

99  Luther,   D.   D.     Geology  of  the   Buffalo  Quadrangle.     32p.  map.     May 
I     1906.      20c. 

10 1    Geology   of   the    Penn    Yan-Hammondsport    Quadrangles.      2  8p. 

map.     July  1906.      Out  of  print. 

106  Fairchild,  H.  L.  Glacial  Waters  in  the  Erie  Basin.  88p.  i4pl  9  maps. 
Feb.  1907.      Out  of  print. 

107  Woodworth,  T-  B.;  Hartnagel,  G.  A.;  Whitlock,  H.  P.;  Hudson,  G.  H. ; 
Clarke,  J.  M.;  White,  David  &  Berkey,  C.  P.  Geological  Papers.  388?. 
54pl.  map.     May  1907.     90c,  cloth. 

Contents:     Woodworth,  J.  B.      Postglacial  Faults  of  Eastern  New  York. 
Hartnagel,  C.  A.     Stratigraphic   Relations  of  the  Oneida  Conglomerate. 

Upper  Siluric  and  Lower  Devonic  Formations  of  the  Skiinnemunk  Mountain  Region. 

Whitlock,   H.   P.      Minerals  from   Lyon   Mountain,  Clinton  Co. 

Hudson.  G.  H.     On  Some  Pelmatozoa  from  the  Chazy  Limestone  of  New  York. 
Clarke,  J.   M.      Some  New  Devonic  Fossils. 

An  Interesting  Style  of  Sand-filled  Vein. 

Eurypterus  Shales  of  the  Shawangunk  Mountains  in  Eastern  New  York. 

White,  David.     A  Remarkable  Fossil  Tree  Trunk  from  the  Middle  Devonic  of  New  York. 
Berkey,  C.  P.      Structural  and  Stratigraphic  Features  of  the  Basal  Gneisses  of  the  High- 

Ill  Fairchild,  H.  L.  Drumlins  of  New  York.  6op.  2  8pl.  19  maps.  July 
1907.      Out  of  print. 

114  Hartnagel,  C.  A.  Geologic  Map  of  the  Rochester  and  Ontario  Beach 
Quadrangles.      36p.  ma]).      Aug.   1007.      20c. 

115  Gushing,  H.  P.  Geology  of  the  Long  Lake  Quadrangle.  8Sp.  2opl. 
map.      Sept.   1907.      Out  of  print. 

118  Clarke,  J.  M.  &  Luther,  D.  D.  Geologic  Maps  and  Descriptions  of  the 
Portage  and  Nunda  Quadrangles  including  a  map  of  Letchworth  Park. 
500.   i6pl.  4  maps.     Jan.  1908.      35c. 

126  Miller,  W.  J.  Geology  of  the  Remsen  Quadrangle.  54p.  il.  iipl.  map. 
Jan.  1909.      2^c. 

127  Fairchild,  H.  L.  Glacial  Waters  in  Central  New  York.  64p.  27pl.  15 
maps.      Mar.   1909.      40c. 

128  Luther,  D.  D.  Geology  of  the  (ieneva-Ovid  Quadrangles.  44p.  map. 
.•\pr.   TQ09.      20c. 

135.  Miller,  W.  I.  Geology  of  the  Port  Leyden  Quadrangle,  Lewis  County, 
X.  Y.      621).  il.   Iipl.  map.     Jan.   19 10.      25c. 

137  Luther,  D.  D.  Geology  of  the  Auburn-Genoa  Quadrangles.  36p.  map. 
Mar.   luio.      20c. 

138  Kemp.  T.  F.  &  Ruedemann,  Rudolf.  Geology  of  the  Elizabethtown 
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145  Gushing,  H.  P.;  Fairchild,  H.  L. ;  Ruedemann,  Rudolf  &  Smyth,  C.  H. 
Geology  of  the  Thousand  Islands  Region.  iy4p.  il.  62pl.  6  maps.  Dec. 
10  lo.      75c. 

146  Berkev,  C.  P.  Geologic  Features  and  Problems  of  the  New  York  Citv 
(Catskill)   Aqueduct.  286p.  il.  38pl.  maps.  Feb.  igii.      75c:  cloth,  $r. 

148  Gordon,  C.  E.  Geology  of  the  Poughkeepsie  Quadrangle.  i22p.  il, 
26pl.  map.      Apr.  igir.     30c. 

152  Luther,  D.  D.  Geology  of  the  Honeoye-Wayland  Quadrangles.  309. 
map.     Oct.  191 1.     20c. 

153  Miller,  William  J.  Geology  of  the  Broadalbin  Quadrangle,  Fulton- 
Saratoga  Counties,  New  York.  66p.       il.       8  pi.     map.      Dec.    19 11.      25c. 

154  Stoller,  James  H.  Glacial  Geology  of  the  Schenectady  Quadrangle.  449. 
9  pi.       map.     Dec.  I9tr.     20c. 

159  Kemp,  James  F.  The  Mineral  Springs  of  Saratoga.  Sop.  il.  3pl.  Apr. 
1912.      15c. 

160  Fairchild,  H.  L.  Glacial  Waters  in  the  Black  and  Mohawk  Valleys.  48p. 
il.  8pl.  14  maps.      May  1912.     50c. 

162  Ruedemann,  Rudolf.     The   Lower   Siluric   Shales  of   the   Mohawk   Valley. 

i52p.  il.  I5pl.     Aug.  19 1 2.     35c. 
Miller,  William  J.     Geological  History  of  New  York  State.     ///  press. 
Luther,  D.  D.     Geology  of  the  Attica  and  Depew  Quadrangles.     In  press. 
Miller,  Williain  J.     Geology  of  the  North  Creek  Quadrangle.     In  press. 
Luther,  D.  D.     Geology  of  the  Phelps  Quadrangle.     In  preparation. 
Whitnall,  H.  O.     Geology  of  the  Morrisville  Quadrangle.      Prepared. 
Hopkins,  T.  C.     Geology  of  the  Syracuse  Quadrangle.      Prepared. 
Hudson,  G.  H.     Geology  of  Valcour  Island.     In  preparation. 
Economic   Geology.     3  Smock,   J.  C.      Building  Stone  in  the  State  of  New 

York.      i54p.      Mar.   18S8.      Out  of  frhit. 
7  First  Report  on  the  Iron  Mines  and  Iron  Ore  Districts  in  the  State 

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10 Building  Stone  in  New  York.      2iop.  map,  tab.      Sept.   iSqo.      40c. 

11  Merrill,  F.  J.  H.  Salt  and  Gypsum  Industries  of  New  York.  94p.  i2pl. 
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12  Ries,  Heinrich.  Clay  Industries  of  New  York,  i  74p.  il.  ipl.  inap.  Mar. 
1895.      30c. 

15   Merrill,    F.    J.    II.      Mineral    Resources   of    New   York.      2  4op.    2    maps. 

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17  Road     Materials    and     Road    Building  in   New  York.      52p.    i4pl. 

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30  Orton,   Edward.      Petroleuin  and  Natural  Gas  in  New  York.      i3':>p.  il. 

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35   Ries,  Heinrich.     Clays  of  New  York;  their  Properties  and  Uses.      456p. 

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44  Lime  and  Cement  Industries  of  New  York;  Eckel,  E.  C.  Chapters 

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■61    Dickinson,  H.  T.      Quarries  of  Bluestone  and  Other  Sandstones  in  New 

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85   Rafter,  G.  W.      Hydrology  of  New  York  State.     902p.  il.  44pl.  5  maps. 

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■93   Newland,    D.    H.      Mining   and    Quarry    Industry   of    New    York.      78p. 

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100  McCourt,  W.  E.      Fire  Tests  of  Some  New  York  Building  Stones.      4op. 

26pl.      Feb.   iqo6.      15c. 
102   Newland,    1).    H.     Mining  and   Quarry   Industry   of   New   York    1Q05. 

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112 Mining   and    Quarry    Industry   of   New    York    1906.      82p.     July 

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119  — — -  &  Kemp,  J.  F.  Geology  of  the  Adirondack  Magnetic  Iron  Ores 
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8  maps.     Apr.  igo8.      35c. 

120  Newland,  D.  H.  Mining  and  Quarry  Industry  of  New  York  1907.  82p. 
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123  — &  Hartnagel,  C.  A.      Iron  Ores  of  the  Clinton  Formation  in  New 

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132  Newland,  D.  H.     Mining  and  Quarry  Industry  of  New  York  1908.     gSp. 

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142  -Mining  and  Quarry   Industry  of  Xew  York  for  1909.      gSp.     Aug. 

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143  Gypsum  Deposits  of  Xew  York.     94p.  2opl.  4  maps.     Oct.  1910. 


151 Mining  and  Quarry  Industry  of  New  York  1910.  82p.  June  1911.  15c. 

161  — ■ — ■  MiningandQuarry  Industry  of  New  York  191 1.   Ii4p.  July  1912.  20c. 
Mineralogy.     4  Nason,  F.  L.     Some  New  York  Minerals  and  their  Localities. 

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58  Whitlock,  H.  P.     Guide  to  the  Mineralogic  Collections  of  the  New  York 

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70  New  York  Mineral  Localities,      iiop.      Oct.  1903.      20c. 

98  Contributions  from  the  Mineralogic  Laboratory.      38p.   7pl.      Dec. 

IQ05.      Out  of  print. 
Zoology,      I    Marshall,   W.    B.      Preliminary   List  of  New   York   Unionidae . 

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9 Beaks  of  Unionidae  Inhabiting  the  Vicinity  of  Albany,  N.  Y.     3op. 

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29  Miller,  G.  S.,  jr.     Preliminary  List  of  Xew  York  Mammals.      i2  4p.     Oct, 

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33  Farr,  M.  S.     Check  List  of  New  York  Birds.      224P.     Apr.  1900.      25c. 
38  Miller,  G.   S.,  jr.     Key  to  the  Land  Mammals  of  Northeastern   North 

Ainerica.      io6p.     Oct.   1900.     Out  of  print. 
40   Simpson,  G.   B.      Anatomy  and  Physiology  of  Polygyra  albolabris  and 

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1901.      25c. 
43   Kellogg;  J.  L.     Clam  and  Scallop  Industries  of  Xew  York.     36p.   2pl. 

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51    Eckel,   E.  C.  &  Paulmier,  F.  C.     Catalogue  of  Reptiles  and  Batrachians 

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Eckel,  E.  C.     Serpents  of  Northeastern  United  States. 

Paulmier,  F.  C.      Lizards,  Tortoises  and  Batrachians  of  Xew  York. 

60  Bean,  T.  H,     Catalogue  of  the  Fishes  of  New  York.     784P.     Feb.  1903, 
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71  Kellogg,  J.  L.     Feeding  Habits  and  Growth  of  Venus  mercenaria.     3op, 
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88  Letson,  Elizabeth  J.     Check  List  of  the  MoUusca  of  New  York.      ii6p. 

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91   Paulmier,  P.  C.     Higher  Crustacea  of  New  York  City.      78p.  il.     June 

1905.     20c. 
130  Shufeldt,  R.  W,     Osteology  of  Birds.     382P.  il.  26pl.     May  1909.     50c. 
Entomology.     5  Lintner,  J.  A,     White  Grub  of  the  May  Beetle.     34p.  il. 

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6  Cut-worms.     38p.  il.     Nov.  188S.      Free. 

13 San  Jose  Scale  and  Some  Destructive  Insects  of  New  York  State, 

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20  Felt,   E.  P.     Elm  Leaf  Beetle  in  New  York  State.     46p.  il.  5pl.     June 

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See  5  7. 

23  14th  Report  of  the  State  Entomologist  189S.      i5op.  il.  9pl.     Dec, 

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24 Memorial  of  the  Life  and  Entomologic  Work  of  J.  A.  Lintner  Ph.D. 

State  Entomologist  1874-98;  Index  to  Entomologist's  Reports  1-13.  3i6p. 

Ipl.     Oct.  1899.     35c. 
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26  Collection,    Preservation   and   Distribution   of   New   York   Insects 

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27  Shade  Tree   Pests  in  X'ew  York  State.     26p.  il.    spl.     May   1899. 


31 15th  Report  of  the  State   Entomologist   1899.      i28p.     June   1900. 

36 ■  1 6th  Report  of  the  State  Entomologist  1900.      ii8p.      i6pl.     Mar, 

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37  Catalogue  of  Some  of  the  More  Important  Injurious  and  Beneficial 

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46  Scale  Insects  of  Importance  and  a  List  of  the  Species  m  New  York 

State.      Q4p.  il.   i5pl.     June  iqoi.      25c. 

47  Needham,  J.  G.   &  Betten,   Cornelius.     Aquatic  Insects  in  the  Adiron- 
dacks.      234p.  il.  36pl.      Sept.  iqoi.      45c. 

53  Felt,  E.  P.      17th  Report  of  the  State  Entomologist  190 1.     232P.  il.  6pl. 
Aug.   1Q02.      Out  of  print. 

57  Elm  Leaf   Beetle   in   New  York   State.      46p.   il.   8pl.     Aug.    1902. 

Out  of  print. 

This  is  a  revision  of  Bulletin    20   containing  the    more    essential  facts  observed  since  that 
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59  Grapevine  Root  Worm.     40p.  6pl.      Dec.  1902.      15c. 

See  12. 

64  i8th   Report  of  the    State    Entomologist    1902.      iiop.    6pl.     May 

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68  Needham,  J.  G.  &  others.     Aquatic  Insects  in  New  York.     322p.  52pl. 

Aug.  1903.      80c,  doth. 
72   Felt,  E.  P.     Grapevine  Root  Worm.      sSp.  i3pl.      Nov.  1903.      20c. 

This  is  a  revision  of  Bulletin  59  containing  the  more  essential  facts   observed    since  that 
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74  &  Joutel,   L.   H.     Monograph  of  the  Genus  Saperda.     88p.    i4pl. 

June  1904.      25c. 

76   Felt,   E.   P.      19th  Report  of  the  State   Entomologist   1Q03.      i5op.  4pL 

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79  Mosquitos  or  Culicidae  of  New  York.      i64p.   il.   57pl.   tab.     Oct. 

1904.      40c. 
86  Needham,  J.  G.  &  others.     May  Flies  and  ]\Iidges  of  New  York.     352p. 

il.  37pl.      June   1Q05.      80c,  doth. 
97   Felt,  E.  P.      20th  Report  of  the  State  Entomologist  1904.      246P.  il.  i9pl. 

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103  Gipsy  and  Brown  Tail  Moths.     44p.  lopl.     July  1906.      15c'. 

104  2ist  Report  of  the  State  Entomologist  1905.      i44p.   lopl.     Aug. 

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109  Tussock  Moth  and  Elm  Leaf  Beetle.     34p.  8pl.      Mar.  1907.      20c. 

no  22d   Report  of  the   State   Entomologist   1906.      i52p.   3pl.     June 

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124  23d  Report  of  the  State  Entomologist  1907.      542p.    il.    44pl.     Oct. 

1908.  75c. 

129  Control  of  Household  Insects.      48p.  il.      May  1909.      Out  of  print. 

134  24th    Report   of   the    State    Entomologist    1908.      2o8p.    il.    i7pl. 

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136  Control   of   Flies   and   Other   Household    Insects.      56p.   il.      Feb. 

1910.  15c. 

This  is  a    revision  of    Bulletin    129    containing    the    more    essential    facts    observed    since 
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141    Felt,  E.  P.  25th  Report  of  the  State  Entomologist  1909.  i78p.   il.   22pl. 

July  1 9 10.     35c. 
147  -26111   Report  of  the  State  Entomologist  1910.     i82p.  il.    35pl.  Mar. 

191 1.  35c. 

155" 27th  Report  of  the  State   Entomologist  191 1.       igSp.  il.    27pl.  Jan. 

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156  Elm  Leaf  Beetle  and  Wliite-Marked  Tussock  Moth.     35p.  8pl.  Jan. 

1912.     20c. 

■ 28th  Report  of  the  State  Entomologist  1912.    In  press. 

Needham,  J.  G.     Monograph  on  Stone  Flies.     In  preparation. 

Botany.      2  Peck,  C.  H.     Contributions  to  the  Botany  of  the  State  of  New 

York.      72p.  2pl.      May  1887.      Out  of  print. 

8  Boleti  of  the  United  States.      98p.     Sept.  1889.      Out  of  print. 

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54  •  Report  of  the  State  Botanist  1901.      58p.  7pl.     Nov.  1902.     40c. 

67  Report  of  the  State  Botanist  1902.      196P.  5pl.     May  1903.      50c. 

75  Report  of  the  State  Botanist  1903.      7op.  4pl.  1904.     40c. 

94  Report  of  the  State  Botanist  1904.      bop.  lopl.     July  1905.  ■   40c. 










35  c. 











I  i6p. 




45  c. 







9  pi. 





105 Report  of  the  State  Botanist  1905. 

116  Report  of  the  State  Botanist  1906. 

122  — - — ■  Rcyjort  of  the  State  Botanist  1907. 
131   — — -  Report  of  the  State  Botanist  iqo8. 

139  Report  of  the  State  Botanist  iqoq. 

150  Report  of  the  State  Botanist  1910. 

157  Report  of  the  State  Botanist   191 1. 

Report  of  the  State  Botanist  1912.     In  press. 

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22  Earthenware  of  the  New  York  Aborigines.      78p.  33pl.     Oct.  1898. 

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41  — - —  Wampum  and  Shell  Articles  Used  by  New  York  Indians.      i66p. 

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50  — — -  Horn  and  Bone  Implements  of  the  New  York  Indians.      ii2p.  43pl. 

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55 Metallic  Implements  of  the  New  York  Indians.      94p.  38pl.      June 

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78  History  of  the  New  York  Iroquois.     34op.   i7pl.  map.      Feb.   1905. 

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89  Aboriginal  Use  of  Wood  in  New  York.      igop.  35pl.     June    1905. 


108  Aboriginal  Place  Names  of  New  \ork.     336p.      May  1907.      40c. 

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117  Parker,  A.  C.  An  Erie  Indian  Village  and  Burial  Site.  io2p.  38pl. 
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125  Converse,  H.  M.  &  Parker,  A.  C.      Iroquois  Myths  and  Legends.      196P. 

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144  Parker,  A.  C.      Iroquois  Uses  of  Maize  and  Other  Food  Plants.      i2op. 

il.  3ipl.    'No\'.   igio.      30c. 
163  Parker,  A.  C.     The  Code  of  Handsome  Lake.     I44p.  23pl.  Nov.  1912.     25c. 
Miscellaneous.    62  Merrill,  F.  J.  H.     Directory  of  Natural  History  Museums 

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66   Ellis,    Mary.      Index   to    Publications   of   the    New  Vork   State    Natural 

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4  Peck,  C.  H.    N.  Y.  Edible  Fungi,  1895-99.    io6p.  25pl.    Nov.   1900.    [$1.25] 

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5  Clarke,  J.  M.  &  Ruedemann,  Rudolf.  Guelph  Formation  and  Fauna  of 
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6  Clarke,  J.  M.      Naples  Fauna  in  Western  New  York.     268p.   26pl.  map. 

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il.  48pl.     Feb.  1906.   $2.50,  c/o//j;  v.  2.   Feb.  1907.     $2,  cloth. 

9  Clarke,  J.  M.  Early  Devonic  of  New  York  and  Eastern  North  America. 
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14  Clarke,  J.  M.  &  Ruedemann,  Rudolf.  The  Eurypterida  of  New  York.  v.  i. 
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Natural  History  of  Xew  York.     30 v.  il.  pi.  maps.      4to.      Albany  1842-94. 

DIVISION  I  ZOOLOGY.  De  Kay,  James  E.  Zoology  of  Xew  York;  or,  The 
New  York  Fauna;  comprising  detailed  descriptions  of  all  the  animals 
hitherto  observed  within  the  State  of  Xew  York  with  brief  notices  of 
those  occasionally  found  near  its  borders,  and  accompanied  by  appropri- 
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Historical  introduction  to  the  series  Vjy  Gov.  W.   H.  Seward.      i78p. 

V.  I  pti  Mammalia.       131  +  46p.     33pl.      1842. 
300  copies  with  hand-colored  plates. 

V.  2  pt2  Birds.       12  -f  38op.      i4ipl.      1844. 
Colored  plates. 

V.  3  pt3  Reptiles  and  Amphibia.      7  +  98p.    pt  4  Fishes.      15  +  4i5P-     1842. 

pt   3-4  bound  together. 

V.   4  Plates  to  accompany   v.   3.      Reptiles  and  Amphibia.      23pl.      Fishes. 
79pl.      1842. 
300  copies  with  hand-colored  plates. 

V.  5  pt5  Mollusca.  4  +  271P.  4opl.  pt  6  Crustacea.  7op.  i3pl.  1S43-44. 
Hand-colored  plates;  pt5-6  bound  together. 

DIVISION  2  BOTANY.  Torrev,  John.  P^lora  of  the  State  of  Xew  York;  com- 
prising full  descriptions  of  all  the  indigenous  and  naturalized  plants  hith- 
erto discovered  in  the  State,  with  remarks  on  their  economical  and  medical 
properties.      2v.  il.  pi.  sq.  4to.  Albany  1843.      Out  oj  print. 

V.    I  Flora  of  the  State  of  Xew  York.      12  +  4S4P-  72pl.      1843- 

300  copies  with  hand-colorcil  plates. 

V.   2  Flora  or  the  State  of  Xew  York.      572P.  8<)pl.      1843. 
300  copies  with  hand-colored  plates. 

DIVISION  3  MINERALOGY.  Beck,  Lcwis  C.  Mineralogy  of  Xew  \ork;  com- 
prising detailed  descriptions  of  the  minerals  hitherto  found  in  the  State 
of  New  York,  and  notices  of  their  uses  in  the  arts  and  agriculture,  il.  pi. 
sq.  4to.  Albany  1842.      Out  of  print. 

V.  I  jiti  Economical  Mineralogv.  pt2  Descriptive  ^lineralogy.  24  +  5.)6p. 

8  plates  additional  to  those  printed  as  part   of  the  text. 

DIVISION  4  GEOLOGY.  Mather,  W.  W. ;  Emmons,  Ebenezer;  Vanuxem,  Lard- 
ner  &  Hall,  James.  Geology  of  Xew  York.  4V.  il.  pi.  sq.  4to.  Albany 
1842-4^.      Out  of  print. 

V.   ipti    Mather,  W.  W.     First  Geological  District.     37  -f  653P.  46pl.      1843. 

V.  2  pt2  Emmons,  Ebenezer.  Second  Geological  District.  10  -f  4,1 7P- 
i7pl.      1842. 

V.   3   pt3     Vanuxem,  Lardner.    Third  Geological  District.      3o6p.      1842. 

V.  4  pt4  Hall,  Janies.  Fourth  Geological  District.  22  -h  683P.  igpl. 
map.      1843. 

DIVISION  5  AGRICULTURE.  Euimons,  Ebciiezer.  Agriculture  of  Xew\o_rk; 
comprising  an  account  of  the  classification,  composition  and  distribution 
of  the  soils  and  rocks  and  the  natural  waters  of  the  different  geological 
formations,  together  with  a  condensed  view  of  the  meteorology  and  agri- 
cultural productions  of  the  State.  5V.  il.  pi.  sq.  4to.  Albany  1846-54. 
Out  of  print. 


V.  I  Soils  of  the  State,  their  Composition  and  Distribution,      ii  +  3  7ip.  2ipL 

V.  n  Analysis  of  Soils,  Plants,  Cereals,  etc.      8  +  343  +  46p.      42pl.      1849. 
With  hand-colored  plates. 

V.  3   Fruits,  etc.     8  +  34op.      1851. 

V.  4  Plates  to  accompany  v.  3.     95pl.      1851. 


V.   5   Insects  Injurious  to  Agriculture.      8  +  272P.      5opl.      1854. 
With  hand-colored  plates. 

DIVISION  6  PALEONTOLOGY.    Hall,  James.    Palaeontology  of  .\e\v  York.     8v 

il.  pi.  sq.  4to.     Albany  1847-94.      Bound  in  cloth. 
V.   I   Organic   Remains  of  the   Lower   Division  of  the    Xew   York    Svstem. 

23  +  33 8p.      99pl-      1847.      Out  of  print. 
V.   2   Organic  Remains  of  Lower  Middle  Division  of  the  Xew  York  System. 

8  +  362P.   io4pl.      1852.      Out  0}  print. 
V.   3   Organic   Remains  of  the   Lower  Helderberg  Group  and  the   Oriskany 

Sandstone,     pt  i,  text.      12  +  532P.      1859.      [$3.50] 

pt  2.   I42pl.      1861.      [$2.50] 

V.  4  Fossil  Brachiopoda  of  the  Upper  Helderberg,  Hamilton,  Portage  and 
Chemung  Groups.      1 1  -f  i  +  428p.  69pl.      1867.      $2.50. 

V.  5  pt  I  Lamellibranchiata  i.  Monomyaria  of  the  Upper  Helderbergs, 
Hamilton  and  Chemung  Groups.      18  +  268p.  45pl.      1884.     $2.50. 

Lamellibranchiata  2.  Dimyaria  of  the  Upper  Helderberg,  Ham- 
ilton,  Portage  and   Chemung  Groups.      62  -f  2g3p.      5ipl.      1885.     $2.50. 

pt  2  Gasteropoda,  Pteropoda  and  Cephalopoda  of  the  Upper  Helder- 
berg, Hamilton,  Portage  and  Chemung  Groups.  2 v.  1879.  v.  i,  text. 
15  -t-  492p. ;  V.2.  i2opl.      $2.50  for  2  v. 

&  Simpson,  George  B.  v.  6  Corals  and  Bryozoa  of  the  Lower  and  Up- 
per Helderberg  and   Hamilton  Groups.      24  -f  298P.  67pl.      1887.     $2.50. 

&  Clarke,  John  M.  v.  7  Trilobites  and  Other  Crustacea  of  the  Oris- 
kany, Upper  Helderberg,  Hamilton,  Portage,  Chemung  and  Catskill 
Groups.  64  -f  236p.  46pl.  1S88.  Cont.  supplement  to  v.  3,  pt  2.  Ptero- 
poda, Cephalopoda  and  Annelida.      42p.  i8pl.      1888.     $2.50. 

&  Clarke,  John  M.      v.  8  pt  i      Introduction  to  the  Study  of  the  Genera 

of  the   Paleozoic   Brachiopoda.      16  +  367P.   44pl.      1892.      $2.50. 

&  Clarke,  John  M.     v.  8  pt  2  Paleozoic  Brachiopoda.      16  +  394P.  64pl. 

1894.      $2.50. 

Catalogue  of  the  Cabinet  of  Natural  History  of  the  State  of  Xew  York  and 
of  the  Historical  and  Antiquarian  Collection  annexed  thereto.  242P.  8vo. 

Handbooks  1893-date. 

New  York  State  Museum.      52P.  il.      1902.     Free. 

Outlines,  history  and  work  of  the  museum  with  list  of  staff  1902. 

Paleontology.      i2p.      1899.     Out  of  print. 

Brief  outline  of  State  Museum  work  in  paleontology  under  heads:  Definition;  Relation  to 
biology;  Relation  to  stratigraphy;  History  of  paleontology  in  New  York. 

Guide  to  Excursions  in  the  Fossiliferous  Rocks  of  Xew  York.  i24p.  1899. 

Itineraries  of  32  trips  covering  nearly  the  entire  series  of  Paleozoic  rocks,  prepared  specially 
for  the  use  of  teachers  and  students  desiring  to  acquaint  themselves  more  intimately  with  the 
classic  rocks  of  this  State. 

Entomology.  i6p.  1899.  Out  of  print. 
Economic  Geology.  44p.  1904.  Free. 
Insecticides  and  Fungicides.      2op.      1909.     Free. 

Classification  of  X^ew  York  Series  of  Geologic  Formations.  32p.  1903.  Out 
of  pdnt.     Revised  edition.     96p.      191 2.     Free. 


Geologic  maps.  Merrill,  F.  J.  H.  Economic  and  (Geologic  Map  of  the 
State  of  New  York;  issued  as  part  of  Museum  Bulletin  15  and  48th  Museum 
Report,  V.  i.      59  x  67  cm.      1894.      Scale  14  miles  to  i  inch.      15c. 

Map  of  the  State  of  New  York  Showing  the  Location  of  Quarries  of 

Stone  Used  for  Building  and  Road  Metal.      1897.      Out  of  print. 

Map  of  the  State  of  New  York  Showing  the  Distribution  of  the  Rocks 

Most  Useful  for  Road  Metal.      1897.     Out  of  print. 

Geologic  Map  of  New  York.      1901.      Scale  5  miles  to  i  inch,      hi  atlas 

form  $3.     Lower  Hudson  sheet  60c. 

The  lower  Hudson  sheet,  geologically  colored,  comprises  Rocklanii,  Orange,  Dutchess 
Putnam,  Westchester,  New  York,  Richmond,  Kings,  Queens  and  Nassau  counties,  and  parts 
of  Sullivan,  Ulster  and  Suffolk  counties;  also  northeastern  New  Jersey  and  part  of  western 

■  Map  of  New  York  Showing  the  Surface  Configuration  and  Water  Sheds 

1901.     Scale  12  miles  to  i  inch.      15c. 

Map  of  the  State  of  New  York  Showing  the  Location  of  its  Economic 

Deposits.      1904.      Scale  12  miles  to  i  inch.      15c. 

Geologic  maps  on  the  United  States  Geological  Survey  topographic  base. 
Scale  I  in.  =  I  m.  Those  marked  with  an  asterisk  have  also  been  pub- 
lished separately. 

*Albany  county.      189S.      Out  of  print. 

Area  around  Lake  Placid.      1898. 

Vicinity  of  Frankfort  Hill  [parts  of  Herkimer  and  Oneida  counties].     1899. 

Rockland  county.      1899. 

Amsterdam  quadrangle.      1900. 

*Parts  of  Albany  and   Rensselaer  counties.      it,oi.      Ottt  nj  print. 

*Niagara  river.      1901.      25c. 

Part  of  Clinton  county.      1901. 

Oyster  Bay  and  Hempstead  quadrangles  on  Long   Island.      190 1. 

Portions  of  Clinton  and  Essex  counties.      1902. 

Part  of  town  of  Northumberland,  Saratoga  co.      1903. 

Union  Springs,  Cayuga  county  and  vicinity.      1903. 

*01ean  quadrangle.      1903.      Free. 

♦Becraft  Mt  with  2  sheets  of  sections.      (Scale  i  in.  =  h  m.)      1903.      20c 

*Canandaigua-Naples  quadrangles.      1904.      20c. 

*Little  Falls  quadrangle.      1905.      Free. 

*Watkins-Elmira  quadrangles.      1905.      20c. 

*Tully  quadrangle.      1905.      Free. 

*Salamanca  quadrangle.      1905.      Free. 

*Mooers  quadrangle.      1905.      Free. 

Paradox  Lake  quadrangle.     1905. 

*Buffalo  quadrangle.      1906.      Free. 

*Penn  Yan-Hammondsport  quadrangles.      1906.      20c. 

*Rochester  and  Ontario  Beach  quadrangles.      20c. 

*Long  Lake  quadrangle.      Free. 

*Nunda-Portage  quadrangles.      20c. 

*Remsen  quadrangle.      1908.     Free. 

*Geneva-Ovid  quadrangles.      1909.      20c. 

*Port  Leyden  quadrangle.      19 10.     Free. 

*Auburn-Genoa  quadrangles.      19 10.      20c. 

*Elizabethtown  and  Port  Henry  quadrangles.      1910.      15c. 

♦Alexandria  Bay  quadrangle.      Free. 

*Cape  Vincent  quadrangle.     Free. 

*Clayton  quadrangle.      Free. 

♦Grindstone  quadrangle.      Free. 

♦Theresa  quadrangle.      Free. 

*Poughkeepsie  quadrangle.      Free. 

*Honeoye-Wayland  quadrangle.     20c. 

*Broadalbin  quadrangle.      Free. 

*Schenectady  quadrangle.     Free.